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70 Cards in this Set

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In "Who's sleeping with whom?" What are the American values?
1. Incest avoidance- seperate parents and kids
2. Sacred marriage bed- only mom and dad and sex
3. Autonomy - independence instilled in children
4. Space- bedroom for every child
In "Who's sleeping with whom?", what are the Indian values?
1. Incest avoidance- separate siblings.
2. Protection of vulnerable children
3.Female chastity anxiety
4. Hierarchy of age
What is the genetic relation between humans and chimpanzees?
Humans and chimps are 98% similar and humans are more related to chimps than chimps are to gorillas
What does altricial mean?
Helpless- the babies can't do anything
What does precocial mean?
it means able
Are humans altricial or precocial?
Humans are secondary altricial
How long should human gestation be?
21 months
Why are human babies' brains unfinished?
Bipedal mother = painful childbirth + unfinished brains
What does r mean?
a lot of babies but not a lot of effort into them
What does k mean?
A few (or one) baby but a lot of care in child- rearing
What is entrainment?
Connection to babies- parents will automatically pick up and feed babies
Parenting styles reflect socio-economic base. Give two examples
Capitalist = foster independence
Communist = foster obedience, sharing
What is ethnopediatrics?
Combining culture and health
What is the difference in contact between other cultures and U.S.?
Other cultures carry their babies more, but they talk less. They focus on physical development and we focus on intellectual
Where do American parents get advice from?
doctors, friends,
Why is it good to sleep with babies?
prevents sids
brain- more wave activity and heartrates synchronize
bonding completes brain development
muscles develop
Why is co-sleeping thought of as bad?
After middle ages, people killed their babies and said that they died in ther sleep.
The church stepped in and said no sleeping with babies.

Also, westerners want more of a romantic life
Who is the sociologist that studied sleeping with babies and what did he say?
James McKenna- sleeping is good and babies and mothers should face eachother
What are the main aspects of !Kung San culture?
1. Foraging
2. sharing - generalized reciprocity
3. Basis of economy and social life is sharing; don't keep track of when you lend things
4. Everyone's not expected to forage everyday
5. No chiefs = egalitarian
6. Band- 20-50
What are the duties of women in the !Kung San culture?
1. 70-80% of food collected
2. They have power
3. Raise babies- constant contact
4. No chores for children or old people
What is the background of the Ache?
1. cold, temperate climate
2. flexible in marriage.
3. animism = god is in nature
4. when any woman is pregnant, she can name 3-4 men who could be father
5. birth is public
6. catholic church/gov't made ache settle into settlements
What is an Ache birth like?
It is public. The whole tribe watches- even little children. Babies need hair to keep warm, so bald babies are often killed.
What is partible paternity?
All men who have sex and feed the mother take care of the mother and the child, not just the biological father.
Why are Ache kids carried so much?
There are very dangerous parasites, worms, leaches = parents don't put kids on the ground until they are about 4 or 5
How do some societies view menstruation?
Dirty- contaminate men/religious altars. Women are often segregated into menstrual huts, this is also to track paternity
Is breastfeeding an instinct?
No, mammals learn to breast feed by watching others
Why should babies not be taken away from mothers immediately after birth?
They need to learn to breastfeed in critical period just after birth
How often to !Kung San babies breastfeed?
Kung babies feed every 13 minutes on average
How long do American babies breast feed? How long should they breast feed?
American babies usually breast feed for a year or less. They should for atleast 2.5 years.
What is prolactin?
It is a hormone that helps lactation.
What happens if babies don't breast feed within 4 days of birth?
The milk stops flowing
Why is breastfeeding better than bottle feeding?
Breast milk has:
1. antibiotics
2.less SIDS
3. more sanitary
4. less sickness later in life
What is one possible problem with breast feeding?
Breast feeding can pass on diseases and the HIV virus
What do most American women think of breastfeeding?
American women know that breastmilk is better, but they think it's inconvenient
Is breast feeding increasing or decreasing in America?
Breast feeding is increasing in America
Where do the EFE live?
Congo basin in central africa
What is unique about efe breastfeeding?
A lot of women 4-14 breast feed each child
Why is communal breast feeding good?
Communal breastfeeding gets more fluid into children, which is good because efe children are very small
What is the social background of the efe?
They are very social- don't work a lot. They are together most of the time, cooperative, and one of the most non-violent people in the world
How is the Mbuti village set up?
Children have a bopi- there own village that they come and go from freely.
What are the gender relations in the Mbuti tribe?
Women and men are equal within their own age group - remember gender tug of war, they want equality
How do the Mbuti see children?
They are pure, because they have not been tainted by killing animals
How do the Mbuti see adults?
They are tainted, because they have killed animals
What special functions do children serve in the Mbuti culture?
They light the fire for hunts and they settle disputes for adults
Where do the Fore live
The fore live in Papua New Guinea
Are there leaders in the Fore villages?
No, there are no chiefs, no patriarchs, no priests or medicine men, and no restrictions on freedom
What is life like for a fore child?
Constant contact.
No crying
No one urges the baby to walk
Children are not restricted= play with hatchets, knives whenever they want
What are the social relations like in the Fore tribe?
Women and men are segregated
Friendship is superior to kinship = friends live together, not husbands and wives
They know each other so well that they don't have to ask for things- little clues and people figure it out
What is the definition of colic?
3 hours of crying
3 days in a row
3 weeks in a row
What is the economic system of the Yanomamo
Balanced reciprocity = not general like !kung san, you're expected to pay back.
What is an intersting aspect of Yanomamo culture?
They are violent- some is just for show, but men beat their wives to show how aggressive they are. Men want to be seen as aggressive and dominating. They are superior to women
How are marriages arranged in Yanomamo villages?
Brides are promised and husbands must work for the bride's family. Sometimes women are stolen = war, and sometimes women have affairs. Men have a lot of wives and a lot of affairs.
How do the Yanomamo eat?
They have small gardens, but they also hunt and gather
What is intersting about Yanomamo genealogy?
They will not mention the names of dead ancestors, nor will they mention the real names of people in the village, especially dominant males
What was the anthro article about war about?
The sociologist argued that war is not a new concept, just because there were no written records. In fact, once people could write, they wrote about war.
What percentage of Yanomamo men die violently?
from 1/4 to 1/3 of yanomamo men die violently
What are the differences between the Yanomamo and foraging cultures?
They are more sedentary
larger groups
more possessions= more protection= more war
still egalitarian, lead by example, but women have less rites than in foraging societies
Why are shamans significant?
They heal (physically and psychologically) a lot of people and have much more botanical knowledge than any western scientist. A lot of knowledge from shamans have led to medicine
When studying the effect of "progress" on traditional people, what should researchers look for?
does it increase or decrease ability to care for physical and psychological needs?

Does crime, nutrition, and natural resources increase or decrease?
How does development increase diseases?
1. new diseases introduced
2. increase in bacteria
3. poverty increases
What specific diseases develop/increase with progress?
Diabetes
Heart disease
obesity
hypertension
sleeping sichness
malaria ( in africa)
What are the "hazards of dietary change"?
vitamin and nutrition levels in processed food is lower than natural food
more sugar and starch= diseases increase
more milk= sick
Why does progress cause tooth decay?
Chewing food less and more sugar
How does progress cause malnutrition?
Protein deficiency
houses deprive children in order to feed adults who need to work
malnutrition can lead to brain underdevelopment
What do critics say about the health problems of progress?
Critics say that clinics and hospitals are built, so they should help with problems. But, people are poor,so they can't go to the clinics anyway.
What is ecocide?
When the environment is destroyed because of progress.
How does progress cause ecocide?
Higher populations and new technology = increased consumption = deterioration and erosion
What happens when sidden cycles are shortened?
The soil is overworked and deteriorates
During periods of "progress" does social life improve for traditional societies?
no, they have less rights and are discriminated against.
What are the differences between native and industrialized societies in reference to child rearing?
co sleeping
breast feeding
contact
focus on values
focus on survival