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16 Cards in this Set

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Congenital heart diseases:

Early cyanosis vs. late cyanosis
Early: right to left shunt (blue babies)

Late: left to right shunt (blue kids)

What causes each kind of shunt?
Early:

The 5 T's:
Tetralogy of fallot (most common), transposition of great arteries, truncus arteriosus, tricuspid atresia, total anomalous pulmonary venous return; also patent foramen ovale--ebstein's anomaly (seen in Lithium use during preggers)

Late:
VSD>ASD>PDA
most common congenital cardiac anomaly
VSD
when would you want to keep the PDA open?
if the baby has transposition of great vessels

what else keeps a baby w/ transposition ok?
VSD or patent foramen ovale
Branchial apparatus
CAP covers outside from inside

Cleft= ectoderm
Arches= mesoderm
Pouches= endoderm
what do these nerves have in common:
CN V2, V3
CN VII
CN IX
CN X
they all have motor and sensory components (except V2)

they innervate the branchial arches;

which arches do they innervate?
V2, V3= first arch (chewing)
VII= second arch (facial expression)
IX= third arch (stylopharyngeus)
X= fourth (swallowing) and sixth arches (speaking)
failure of maxially and medial nasal processes to fuse results in
cleft lip

what causes cleft palate?
failure of fusion of the lateral palatine processes, nasal septum, and/or median palatine processes
where is the diaphragm derived from?
Several Parts build Diaphragm:

1. septum transversum
2. pleuroperitoneal folds
3. body wall
4. dorsal mesentary of esophagus
Tongue innervation
Anterior 2/3:
taste= Cr. VII
sensation= V3

posterior 1/3:
taste/sensation= Cr. IX

pharyngeal area= Cr. X

motor= XII

what branchial arches form the tongue?
1st arch= anterior 2/3
arches 3,4 = posterior 1/3

adenohypophysis becomes?
anterior pituitary

what embryonic cell layer? what other structures come from that layer?
surface ectoderm (rathke's pouch)

-lens of eye, retina
-olfactory epithelium
-epidermis; salivary, sweat and mammary glands
what is unique about the spleen origin
unlike the other gut structures, it is derived from MESODERM.

where are the other gut structures derived from?
the ENDODERM (branchial POUCHES)

gut TUBE = think gut POUCHES
aortic arch derivatives
1st: maxillary artery
maximum effort gets you 1st
2nd: stapedial artery and hyoid aa
s=second
3rd: common carotid, proximal ICA
c=3rd letter of alphabet
4th: aortic arch (L); right subclavian aa (think of the 4 limbs)
6th: pulm aa and ductus arteriosus (L)
what region of the brain develops by week 4
prosencephalon
mesencephalon
rhombencephalon

what do these develop into by the 5th week?
pros: Telencephalon and diencephalon

mes: stays the same

rhomb: metencephalon and myelencephalon
cerebral hemispheres
BG
hippocampus
amygdala

develop from?
telencephalon

telencephalon developed from?
prosencephalon, which gives rise to:

telencephalon, diencephalon
diencephalon gives rise to:
thalamus, hypothalamus, optic nerves and optic tract

when does the diencephalon dev?
5th week; from the prosencephalon
mesenchepalon
gives rise to MIDBRAIN
pons
cerebellum
medulla

develop from?
rhomboencephalon

what structures arise from rhomboencephalon?
metencephalon: pons, cerebellum

myelencephalon: medula