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40 Cards in this Set

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What 2 major immune responses provide protection from infection and disease?
1. the innate immune responses
2. the adaptive (acquired) immune response
What is the function of mononuclear cells?
Ingestion and destruction of:
- damaged cells
- neoplastic cells
- bacteria
What is the function of polymorphonuclear cells?
- Ingestion or phagocytosis
- killing of microorganisms
- facilitation of bodily clearance of dead cells
What is the function of eosinophils?
- phagocytosis
- combating parasitic dz
- defense in allergic response
What is the function of neutrophils?
- phagocytosis
- cytokine release
- secretion of hydrolytic enzymes
- secretion of reactive oxygen species
What is the function of Natural killer (NK) cells?
- nonspecific tumor cell
- antibody-dependant cytotoxicity
What is the function of basohpils and mast cells?
- sources of histamine and heparin (to increase vascular permeability, smooth muscle contractility, and inflammatory responses)
What is the function of platelets?
- facilitation of coagulation
- influence of tissue reactivity to injury
What is the function of B Lymphocytes?
- humoral immunity
- transformation into plasm cells to produce Ab and Ig
- cytokine release
What is the function of T Lymphocytes?
- Recognition and reaction to foreign material
- cytokine release
What is the function of plasma cells?
- protein synthesis to create Ig
What are cytokines?
peptides that regulate the action of inflammatory and immune system cells
What are some examples of cytokines?
- interferons
- interleukins
- tumour necrosis factor (TNF)
- some growth factors
- chemokines
- colony stimulation factors
What are the 2 primary inflammatory cytokines?
1. Interleukin-1
2. TNF-alpha
Besides the plasma, where is IgA found in the human body?
- saliva
- tears
Besides the plasma, where is IgG found in the human body?
- amniotic fluid
Where are B Lymphocytes formed?
- B one marrow
- plasma cells
Where are T Lymphocytes formed?
- T hymus
Which branch of the immune system uses B Lymphocytes?
Humoral system
Which branch of the immune system uses T Lymphocytes?
Cell-mediated system
What is function of antibody IgA?
topical defense
What is function of antibody IgD?
nonspecific (unknown)
What is function of antibody IgE?
Hypersensitivity & anaphylaxis
What is function of antibody IgG?
Defense against systemic infection
What is function of antibody IgM?
Bacterial cell lysis
Vaccinations are an example of which type of immunity (active/passive)?
active
Infusions of IgG to provide a patient with Ab to a dz is an example of what type of immunity (active/passive)?
passive immunity
What does it mean if a person is atopic?
- increased allergy tendency
- maintain large quantities of IgE
What determines if a systemic immediate hypersensitivity reaction is anaphylacTIC or anaphylacTOID?
- anaphylacTIC is an IgE-mediated immune response and only requires minute amounts to trigger a rxn
- anaphylacTOID is a non IgE-mediated immune response and generally require systemic exposure in larger amounts
How late can an anaphylactic reaction develop?
Up to several hours later
How many hypersensitivity reactions are there?
4
What receptors does histamine affect and what happens when they are stimulated?
- H1 (smooth muscle contraction, vasodilation, increased vascular permeability)
- H2 (increased gastric secretion & cardiac stimulation)
- H3 (inhibits release of some neurotransmitters at presynaptic sites)
What is the non-IV dose of Epinephrine for anaphylaxis in adults? In children?
- 100-500 mcg (0.01-0.05 mg) SQ/IM Q 10-15 min up to 1 mg (1000 mcg)
- 10 mcg/kg SQ/IM Q 15 X 2, then Q 4 up to 500 mcg
What is the most common method of occupation HIV transmission?
Injury with a contaminated hollow-bore needle
What 2 strategies exist after occupational exposure with body fluids?
1. tx with 2+ antiretroviral drugs until tests show tx is unwarranted
2. test all parties involved, then treat if warranted
How quickly can results from a rapid HIV test be obtained?
a few hours or less
When should results from a rapid HIV test be confirmed by laboratory tests?
If positive
True or False:

There is no evidence to support that early antiretroviral medications can prevent the development of HIV infection if given early.
False; evidence has been shown that early antiretroviral meds given early, can prevent HIV infection in occupational and neonatal exposures
What are the major components of body substance isolation precautions?
1. gloves
2. mask
3. eyewear/faceshields
4. gowns/aprons
How often should sterile components of the anesthesia machine be changed?
Between EVERY use