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94 Cards in this Set

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A cell carrying only one copy of each chromosome is described as this.
Haploid
A cell carrying two copies of every chromosome is described as this.
Diploid
A chemical substance that regulates plant growth, development and response to stress.
Plant hormone
A chemical that carries signals across the synapse.
Transmitter substance
A fold in a tissue that increases the surface area for exchange. Examples found in the small intestine and in the placenta.
Villi
A genetically identical copy of an organism.
Clone
A haploid cell or gamete I.e. sperm or egg is also known as this.
Sex cell
A large, thin-walled vessel that allows deoxygenated blood to drain back to the heart.
Vein
A major blood vessel carrying blood, usually oxygenated, under pressure from the heart.
Artery
A membrane bound structure (organelle) within the cell where aerobic respiration takes place. Provides most of the energy for cell activity.
Mitochondria
A method of assisted reproduction where isolated and/or stored sperm is introduced into the vagina artificially.
Artificially inseminate
A piece of a plant that is taken in order to cultivate another genetically identical copy of the original.
Cutting
A polymer made of amino acids. Vital component of all living cells as enzymes are examples of this.
Protein
A polymer of sugar phosphate molecules carrying four possible bases that carries the genetic information in the cell.
DNA
A preparation of plant auxin used to promote the establishment of plant cuttings in propagation.
Rooting powder
A protein that catalyses a chemical reaction because of its ability to bind to substrate(s).
Enzyme
A small and flexible cell without a nucleus that carries oxygen around the body.
Red blood cell
A small blood cell fragment that is important in the clotting process.
Platelet
A stretch of DNA that carries a specific instruction within the cell. Usually carries information on the sequence of amino acids within a specific protein.
Gene
A thickening of the artery wall caused by the build up of fatty deposits. Can lead to heart disease.
Plaque
A type of blood cell involved in defence against infection.
White blood cell
A type of blood supply where blood passes through the heart twice for every complete circuit of the body.
Double circulation
A type of fat that can collect in the arteries and cause heart disease if eaten in excess over a long period of time.
Cholesterol
A way of analysing an individual's DNA that gives a pattern that is unique to that individual. Many uses in forensics and genetic analysis.
Fingerprinting
An important type of plant growth regulator involved in phototropic and geotropic responses.
Auxin
An unspecialised cell that retains the ability to divide and differentiate into a wide range of other cell types.
Stem cell
Any change to the sequence of DNA bases in an organism.
Mutation
Experimental methods that avoid infection with microorganisms by using sterile growth medium and equipment as well as antiseptics and antibiotics.
Aseptic technique
Growing plant or animal cells in liquid culture in the laboratory under aseptic conditions
Tissue culture
Lipid layer that surrounds the cell and contains the cytoplasm.
Cell membrane
Minute finger-like projections from the surface of a cell. Found on intestinal lining cells where they increase the surface area for absorption of nutrients.
Microvilli
Normal cell division involving the production of two genetically identical daughter cells.
Mitosis
One of the two chambers in the heart that provide the major pumping action that pressurises the blood to force it around the body.
Ventricle
One of two thin-walled chambers in the heart that collect blood before passing it into the ventricles.
Atrium
Organelle found in plant cells that stores sap and helps to regulate the amount of water in the cytoplasm.
Vacuole
Organisms that are composed of more than one cell are described as this.
Multicellular
Referring to an enzyme or other protein, this term refers to the loss of shape that can occurs on exposure to high temperatures or extremes of pH.
Denatured
Refers to the way in which the bases in DNA interact to hold together the double helix. A always pairs with T; G pairs with C.
Complementary base pairing
Region on the surface of an enzyme that is complementary in shape to the substrate. Site of substrate binding and catalysis.
Active site
Reproduction that does not involve meiosis or the formation of gametes. The offspring are genetically identical to each other and the single parent.
Asexual reproduction
Special form of cell division that generates haploid sex cells.
Meiosis
Specialised structure in mammals that allows the exchange of nutrients and waste between the foetus and the mother.
Placenta
Structure 10?
Tendinous cords or tendons
Structure 11?
Left ventricle
Structure 12?
Wall of left ventricle
Structure 13?
Right atrioventricular or tricuspid valve
Structure 14?
Right ventricle
Structure 1?
Aorta
Structure 2?
Pulmonary artery
Structure 3?
Superior (higher) vena cava
Structure 4?
Semilunar valve
Structure 5?
Right atrium
Structure 6?
Inferior (lower) vena cava
Structure 7?
Pulmonary vein
Structure 8?
Left atrium
Structure 9?
Left atrioventricular or bicuspid valve
Term describing a plants growth response to gravity. Can be positive or negative.
Geotropism
Term describing a plants growth response to light. Can be positive or negative.
Phototropism
Term describing directed breeding techniques where individuals are selected for breeding based on their desired characteristics.
Selective breeding
Term describing selective breeding techniques where individuals that are closely related are allowed to mate.
Inbreeding
Term describing selective breeding techniques where individuals that are unrelated and/or carry very different characteristics are allowed to mate.
Cross-breeding
Term given in IVF techniques to a mother that is used to support the development of an embryo without being genetically related to it.
Surrogate
Term given to a haploid sex cell.
Gamete
Term given to an immature animal that is still developing, but where all the major structures have been formed. Stage between and embryo and birth.
Foetus
Term used to describe an adaptation in plants where growth or development does not occur until conditions of light, water, temperature etc. are suitable.
Dormancy
The bag of enzymes carried on the tip of a sperm that allows it to penetrate the coat around the egg cell.
Acrosome
The complex mixture of enzymes and chemicals where many of the reactions of life happen in the cell.
Cytoplasm
The connection between two nerve cells involving a gap across which neurotransmitters have to diffuse to carry the impulse.
Synapse
The deliberate introduction of a modified gene or a gene from a different species into an organism to achieve a useful characteristic.
Genetic engineering
The first diploid cell formed by the fusion of gametes at fertilisation.
Zygote
The form in which oxygen is carried in red blood cells.
Oxyhaemoglobin
The liquid portion of the blood after all the cells have been removed.
Plasma
The major artery that carries blood from the heart to the rest of the body.
Aorta
The major blood vessel that carries deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs.
Pulmonary artery
The major blood vessel that carries oxygenated blood from the lungs back to the heart.
Pulmonary vein
The major vessel carrying deoxygenated blood back to the heart from the rest of the body.
Vena cava
The membrane bound organelle in plants that is the site of photosynthesis.
Chloroplast
The membrane bound structure (organelle) within the cell where the genetic material is stored.
Nucleus
The name given to the reactant(s) in an enzyme-catalysed reaction.
Substrate
The name of the non-return valves in the aorta and pulmonary artery.
Semilunar
The net movement of a substance from an area of its higher concentration to an area where it is less concentrated.
Diffusion
The process by which a cell becomes specialised to carry out a particular function in a multi-cellular organism.
Differentiation
The process where two gametes fuse to form a zygote.
Fertilisation
The protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen.
Haemoglobin
The spongy air sacs that form the end of the bronchioles. Where gas exchange takes place in the lung.
Alveoli
The strong structure made largely from cellulose that gives plant cells their rigidity and their ability to resist turgour pressure.
Cell wall
The structure adopted by the two strands of DNA as it zips up following the base-pairing rules.
Double helix
The targeted introduction of a DNA change into an organism to achieve a useful result.
Genetic modification
The time between conception and birth in an animal.
Gestation period
The valve between the left atrium and left ventricle that prevents blood flowing back into the atrium when the ventricle contracts.
Bicuspid or mitral valve
The valve between the right atrium and right ventricle that prevents blood flowing back into the atrium when the ventricle contracts.
Tricuspid
The very fine blood vessels that permeate all the tissues in the body to supply oxygen and nutrients as well as remove waste products.
Capillary
These agricultural chemicals use plant growth regulator substances to kill broad leaved weeds without affecting grasses.
Selective weed killer
This exists wherever there is more of a substance in one area compared to another.
Concentration gradient