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20 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What organisms cause Babesiosis in dogs and cats?

What is Babesia spp?

What tick transmits the organism to dogs and cats?

What does the organism cause?

Is there zoonotic potential?
Dog - B. canis, B. gibsoni
Cat - B. felis
(Bovine - B.bigemina, B.bovis)

Intracellular protozoan transmitted by the tick

Rhipicephalus (brown dog tick) and Dermacentor (secondary)
(Boophilus in cattle)

Destroys RBCs intravascularly during escape from cells.

No zoonoses
What are the clinical signs of Babesiosis?
Similar to IMHA, regenerative anemia, usually subclinical

May cause problems in immunocompromised or splenectomized animals

Can cause Hburia, Hbemia, anemia, hemolysis, icterus, death
How do you dx Babesiosis?
History of tick infestation

Giemsa-stained capillary blood or organ smears


Coombs+, polyclonal gammopathy
What is the treatment for Babesiosis?
Imidocarb diproprionate (Imizol)

Diminazene aceturate (Berenil)

Felines may be non-responsive but primaquine phosphate may be effective
How quickly does barium move through the GIT?
Moves out of the stomach into the duodenum w/in 30 min

Reaches ileocolic valve w/in 2 hours
What are Bence-Jones proteins?
Found in urine

Immunoglobulin LIGHT CHAINS

Not detected on dipstick, must use electrophoresis of urine

>50% of dogs and cats with plasma cell myeloma have light chain proteinuria
What is the #1 cause of biliary tract obstructions?

Will have pale, white feces with complete obstruction (rice, i/d does this too?) b/c bilirubin is responsible for normal colored feces.

In sx, if you see little white dots, it's likely saponified fat, not mets
What causes bilirubinuria?

T/F This can be normal in cats

T/F This can be normal in dogs
Obstruction to bile flow

F - never normal in cats, an important indicator of liver disease in cats

T - dogs have the lowest renal threshold for bilirubin therefore not necessarily an indication of disease and dogs can form conjugated bilirubin in the tubular epithelium
Where does Blastomycosis primarily cause lesions in dogs?

What is the best treatment?
Also in skin, eyes, bone

Amphotericin B (nephrotoxic)
What blood types are found in CATS?

How do transfusion rxns usually manifest in the cat?
*A, B, AB - Purebreds most commonly B, AB is rare, severe transfusion rxn occurs in Type B cats receiving Type A blood
*As respiratory distress
Which of the following is not an adverse effect of itraconazole administration in a dog?

Ulcerative skin lesions
Hepatic toxicity
The correct answer is renal toxicity. Nephrotoxicity is seen when using amphotercin B. About 7% of dogs using Itraconazole will develop ulcerative skin lesions when used at a higher dosage rate.
What is the hormonal profile of a female dog in estrus?

Falling estrogen, rising progesterone
Rising estrogen, falling progesterone
Falling estrogen, falling progesterone
Rising estrogen, rising progesterone
The correct answer is falling estrogen, rising progesterone. This is what stimulates the LH surge and leads to ovulation and the behavioral change in estrus where a female will stand to be bred.
What is the most common cause of pyometra in dogs older than 8 years of age?

Cystic endometrial hyperplasia
Ovarian neoplasia
The correct answer is cystic endometrial hyperplasia (CEH). Older intact females develop CEH from repeated exposure to progesterone. Progressive thickening occurs and glands become hypertrophied. This sets up the uterus for development of pyometra.
Which of these is most likely to relieve dyspnea in a cat with feline bronchial disease (feline asthma)?

Alpha-1 agonist
Beta-2 antagonist
Alpha-2 agonist
Beta-2 agonist
Alpha-2 antagonist
The correct answer is beta-2 agonist. Beta-2 agonists will relax bronchial smooth muscle. The one most commonly used for this purpose is terbutaline.
Which of the following is most suggestive of pyelonephritis?

Small, irregular kidneys on ultrasound
Bacteria or white blood cells in the urine
Bacterial or white blood cell casts in urine.
Pain on abdominal palpation
The correct answer is bacterial or white blood cell casts in urine. Bacterial or white blood cell casts are highly suggestive of a past or present bacterial infection in the kidneys. Bacteria or white blood cells in the urine may be due to a cystitis. Small, irregular kidneys may be due to any chronic pathology in the kidneys. Pain on abdominal palpation can be caused by pain from any abdominal organ or structures adjacent to the abdomen. Other signs associated with pyelonephritis include fever, anorexia, depression, and vomiting. A nephropyelogram may show blunted, dilated calices and dilated, tortuous ureters. Renal biopsy and culture would give the definitive diagnosis of pyelonephritis.
What is the most common endocrine disease in cats over 8 years old?

Diabetes mellitus
The correct answer is hyperthyroidism. Hyperthyroidism is the most common endocrine disease in older cats. DM is also common in cats. Hyperadrenocorticism and hypothyroidism in cats is rare.
For which of the following toxins, when ingested by a dog, should you not induce emesis?

The correct answer is gasoline. Emesis, if you can initiate it soon after exposure to a toxin, is a very effective means of decontamination. The times that emesis is not appropriate is for caustic (acid or alkali) substances and substances that are volatile and may be inhaled, causing pulmonary toxicity or aspiration pneumonia. The other contraindication to inducing emesis is the patient that is not awake enough to ensure that they can protect their airway and prevent aspiration.
Which of the following is least useful in helping to diagnose atopic dermatitis in a dog?

Skin biopsy
Intradermal Skin Testing (IDST)
Clinical signs, anatomic distribution of clinical signs, and seasonality
The correct answer is skin biopsy. A biopsy will reveal the pathology that the skin is undergoing, but will not give a specific diagnosis as to what is causing the reaction. IDST is performed by injecting a small amount of various individual antigens into the dermis of an animal and observing which antigen injections cause a reaction. The most common clinical sign of atopy is pruritus, which often occurs on the face, feet, and ears. Flare ups also often occur during times of high concentrations of pollen in the environment. Serum ELISA measures the concentration of antigen specific IgE found in the animal.
Which of the following is an effect of the barbiturate, thiopental, in dogs?

Increase in heart rate
Decrease sensitivity to catecholamine induced arrhythmias
Decrease in arterial blood pressure
Increase in CNS activity
The correct answer is increase in heart rate. Barbiturates are often used to induce anesthesia. They can cause an increase in heart rate, increase in arterial blood pressure, and a decrease in CNS activity. Barbiturates are also arrhythmogenic to the heart.
Which of these anesthetic drugs should be avoided in patients with epilepsy?

The correct answer is acepromazine. Phenothiazines such as acepromazine lower the seizure threshold and should not be used in epileptics or animals predisposed to seizures or undergoing a procedure that may cause seizures (ie. Myelograms).