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13 Cards in this Set

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Name 2 anticholinergic / parasympatholytics.
Atropine and glycopyrolate
How does atropine work?

What are the major effects of atropine?
It's a muscarinic antagonist that inhibits acetylcholine at postganglionic parasympathetic sites.

LOW dose - inhibits salivation, bronchial secretions, sweating.

MODERATE dose - dilates and inhibits accomodation of the pupil, increases HR; crosses BBB

HIGH dose - decreases GI and urinary tract motility.
Should atropine be used in horses?
May cause ileus in horses.
What other indications are there (aside from anesthetic premed) for atropine?
Antiemetic
Mydriatic
Organophosphate toxicity
Compare atropine and glycopyrrolate.
Atropine - good for emergency b/c works fast but only lasts 2-3 hours.

Glycopyrrolate - 2-4x more potent, duration of action is 4-6 hours, prevents bradycardia w/o causing tachycardia, does not penetrate the BBB (poor lipid solubility)
What classes of drugs are commonly used as tranquilizers for premedication?
1) Phenothiazines - e.g. Acepromazine
2) Diazepam - benzodiazepine derivative
3) Opioids
4) alpha 2 agonists
Name side effects of acepromazine.
Vasodilation
Hypotension
Decreased seizure threshold
Inhibition of platelet aggregation
Penile paralysis in stallions
Increased HR
No analgesia
Can diazepam be used alone as a tranquilizer?
No, it can only decrease the amount of other induction drugs necessary.
What is diazepam's mechanism of action?
Centrally acting muscle relaxant (like Guafenesin)
Effects of diazepam?
Anxiolytic, anticonvulsant
Appetite stimulant in cats
May cause aggression in healthy cats d/t inhibition of learned behavior.
What agent reverses diazepam?
Flumazenil
Effects of opioids?
Analgesia
Euphoria
Antitussive
Anti-diarrheal

Also causes hypotension, bradycardia, respiratory depression
List opioids in order of potency
Morphine < oxy (10x) < fentanyl (100x)