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26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
When can abortion or parturition be induced in small animals?
Not safe
PGF-2alpha used >40d
Dexamethasone at 10d causes fetal death and resorption
What does acromegaly cause in cats?

What does it cause in dogs?
Cats - d/t pituatary tumor, severe insulin-resistant DM
Dogs - d/t progestans in intact bitch or exogenous admin. Progestans stimulate GH which antagonizes insulin causing insulin resistance.
What is acrodermatitis?

What breed is it found in?

Clinical Signs?
Lethal familial zince deficiency

White Bull Terriers

Hyperkeratotic dermatitis, pustular dermatitis at MC jx, retarded growth, death by 2 years of age
What are the major causes of an acute abdomen?
Bacterial sepsis
Obstruction / perforation
Ischemia / thrombosis
What are the major deficiencies in Addison's Dz?

What is the Na:K ratio w/Addison's?
Glucocorticoids AND Mineralocorticoids - lack of aldosterone causes impaired ability to conserve Na and excreate K causing HYPOnatremia and HYPERkalemia

Clinical signs of Addison's Dz?
Decreased Na causes hypotension, decreased CO, hypovolemia (in turn microcardia and undercirulated pulmonary vasculature)
Normocytic, Normochromic anemia
Absolute eosinophilia and hypoglycemia (d/t lack of glucocorticoids)
+/- hypercalcemia
DDX of Addison's Dz?
Whipworm infection
Renal failure
Acute pancreatitis
Best Dx test for Addison's?
ACTH Stimulation Test
Treatment for Addison's?
Fluid replacement
Electrolyte assessment
Florinef (Fludrocortisone acetate) OR
DOCP (Desoxycorticosterone pivulate)
Prednisone if needed
What are the effects of ADH?

Where does it act?
Suppresses excretion of urine and stimulates the resorption of water therefore concentrating urine.

Affects the epithelial cells of the RENAL TUBULES
What are the three zones of the adrenal cortex?

What does each zone produce?
Outer = Z. glomerulosa mineralocorticoids

Middle = Z. fasciculata

Inner = Z. reticularis
androgens and estrogens
What does the adrenal medulla produce?
E and NE - modified sympathetic nervous system ganglion, moderates response to stress and hypoglycemia
Tumor of medulla = pheochromocytoma and can secrete E or NE
What are the effects of glucocorticoids made in the adrenal glands?
Antagonize insulin effects:
Increase gluconeogenesis and glycogenesis
Decrease glucose uptake
Increase lipolysis
Suppress wound healing by inhibiting fibroblasts and collagen synthesis
What is the name of the cat lungworm?
What is the first host?
Where does it migrate in the cat?
What do larvae in feces look like?
Clinical signs?
Tx of lungworms?
*Aelurostrongylus abstrusus
*Cat eats host (snail, frog, lizard, bird, rodent), larvae migrate to lungs from stomach, eggs form nodules in alveolar ducts and larvae hatch, coughed up, swallowed and passed in feces
*Dorsally spined tails
*Coughing, dyspnea
What causes aflatoxicosis?

What organs does it affect?

What animal is fairly resistant to its effects?
*Aflatoxin is a metabolite of Aspergillus flavus, a grain fungus
*Liver - hard, yellow-tan to white
*Hemorrhage in GIT and SQ - bruising and "bleach out" syndrome
*Pigs therefore no risk for human consumption
What is the lymphocyte count with alimentary LSA?

What is the best DX test?

What other disease does it look like?
*Normal to decreased peripheral lymphs
*Full thickness biopsy
*Non-responsive IBD, hard to tx
What is amyloid?

What are the two types?

Where does it usually occur?
*Beta-pleated sheets of amino acids refractory to enzymatic breakdown
*AA - released by hepatocytes d/t chronic infection
*AL - partially degraded Ig light chains made by malignant plasma cells
*Amyloid displaces normal cells in the liver, spleen, brain, and kidneys
How does anal sac disease normally present?
Hematochezia, chronic bright red blood with normal stools
What is the canine hookworm?
Ancylostoma caninum
What is anterior uveitis?
Clinical signs?
*Inflammation of the anterior uveal tract (iris, ciliary body, choroid)
*Pain, blepharospasm, tearing, conjunctivitis, constricted pupil, decreased IOP, aqueous flare, keratic precipitates, hypopyon, miosis
*+/- glaucoma, cataract, corneal opacification as complications
What is ascariasis in dogs and cats?
Toxocara canis, felis
Roundworms found in the SI
What is the most common nasal fungus in dogs?
What is the best tx?
Aspergillosis (A. fumigatus) esp in dolichocephalics
Itraconazole (systemic) and flush nasal cavity with clotramizole
Where does aspiration pneumonia usually occur in dogs and cats?
Right middle lung lobe b/c it's the first major bronchus
What is a common primary brain tumor in brachycephalic breeds?
Astrocytoma, also get gliomas
What type of hypersensitivity rxn is atopy?
What does it cause in dogs?
In cats?
Type I, IgG - mediated
Dogs - hives, wheals, urticaria on face, feet, ears, armpits, legs
Cats - miliary dermatitis
Causes include food allergies and atopic dermatitis d/t inhaled allergens
What disease causes avascular necrosis of the femoral head?
What animals does it most commonly affect?
What are the pathogenesis and clinical signs
*Legge-Perthes disease
*Young (8-12 mos)toy breeds, esp Maltese
*Decreased blood supply to the femoral head and neck causing collapse, pathologic frx, and osteoarthorsis, usually unilateral but can be bilateral
*FHO but warn owner that other side commonly becomes diseased later