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74 Cards in this Set

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Axillary artery is divided into how many parts?
Axillary artery is divided into 3 parts based on its relationship to the pectoralis minor, which crosses the axillary artery anteriorly as it inserts into the coracoid process. Part 1 gives off 1 branch, part 2 gives off 2 branches, and part 3 gives off 3 branches.
Part 1 of the axillary artery gives off how many branches?
1: superior thoracic artery
Part 2 of the axillary artery gives off how many branches?
2: thoraco-acromial trunk and lateral thoracic artery
What are the branches of the thoraco-acromial trunk?
4 branches: clavicular, pectoral, acromial, and deltoid branches
Part 3 of the axillary artery gives off how many branches?
3: subscapular artery, anterior humeral circumflex artery, posterior humeral circumflex artery
The axillary vein is formed by the union of what veins?
Axillary vein is formed by the union of the basilic vein, and two brachial veins.
Where is the axillary vein normally formed?
The axillary vein is normally formed at the inferior border of the teres major muscle.
Tributaries of the axillary vein include...
Cephalic vein and veins that correspond to the branches of the axillary artery (with the exception that there is no thoraco-acromial vein)
What is likely the most important tributary of the axillary vein and why?
Lateral thoracic vein; it communicates with the superficial epigastric vein of the abdominal wall. Together they provide an alternative flow route for venous blood should the flow through the IVC be impaired.
Axillary lymph nodes-how many and where?
Anywhere from 12-30 nodes; they form an interconnected chain situated around the vessels in the axilla. They filter lymph from the upper limb, breast, and superficial parts of the anterior and posterior trunk as far south as the umbilicus.
Which nodes receive lymph from the arm?
Humeral (lateral axillary) nodes
Which nodes receive lymph from the scapular region and the back?
Subscapular (posterior axillary) nodes
Which nodes receive lymph from the anterior trunk between the clavicle and umbilicus?
Pectoral (anterior axillary) nodes
Central axillary nodes receive lymph from which nodes?
1. Humeral/lateral axillary nodes
2. Subscapular/posterior axillary nodes
3. Pectoral/anterior axillary nodes
Where do humeral, subscapular, and pectoral lymph nodes drain to?
Humeral, subscapular, and pectoral lymph nodes drain to Central axillary nodes.
Where do central axillary nodes drain to?
Apical axillary nodes
Lymph vessels leaving the apical groups of nodes form what?
Lymph vessels leaving the apical groups of nodes form the subclavian lymph trunks, which empty into the right lymph duct (right) and thoracic duct (left).
What is the axillary sheath?
The axillary sheath is a tough sleeve of deep fascia, an extension of the prevertebral fascia in the neck. The sheath is a tube that contains the axillary artery and brachial plexus. The axillary veins and lymph nodes are outside the axillary sheath.
What is contained within the axillary sheath?
The axillary sheath is a tube that contains the axillary artery and brachial plexus?
Are the axillary vein and lymph nodes inside or outside the axillary sheath?
The axillary vein and lymph nodes are OUTSIDE the axillary sheath.
What is the brachial plexus formed by?
The brachial plexus is formed by the ventral rami of spinal nerves C5-T1.
What types of fibers are contained in the brachial plexus?
The brachial plexus is mainly a somatic plexus but contains some sympathetic motor fibers too. It contains: 1. somatic efferent fibers
2. somatic afferent fibers
3. preganglionic sympathetic fibers
What do the somatic efferent fibers in the BP supply?
Somatic efferent fibers in the BP supply skeletal muscles in the upper limb. The cell bodies of these neurons are in the ventral horns of gray in the cord segments C5-T1.
Where are the cell bodies of somatic efferent fibers in the BP?
The cell bodies of these neurons are in the ventral horns of gray in the cord segments C5-T1.
What do the somatic afferent fibers in the BP supply?
Somatic afferent fibers in the BP convey general sensations from the skin (touch, pressure, pain, etc.) and proprioception from muscles and joints in the upper limb. The cell bodies of these pseudo-unipolar neurons are in the C5-T1 dorsal root ganglia.
Where are the cell bodies of somatic afferent fibers in the BP?
The cell bodies of these pseudo-unipolar neurons are in the C5-T1 dorsal root ganglia.
Where are the cell bodies of preganglionic sympathetic fibers of the BP that serve the upper limb?
The cell bodies of preganglionic sympathetic fibers that serve the upper limb have cell bodies in the spinal cord in the upper part of the intermediolateral cell column (prob T1 and T2). They relay in cervical and upper thoracic chain ganglia and pass into the brachial plexus via gray rami communicants.
The roots, trunks, and divisions of the BP are where with respect to the clavicle?
The roots, trunks, and divisions are all located ABOVE the clavicle in the base of the neck.
What comprises the roots of the BP?
The ventral rami of C5-T1 spinal nerves are the roots of the BP.
Which parts of the BP are in the axilla?
Only the CORDS and BRANCHES of the cords are in the axilla.
What roots form the upper trunk?
C5 and C6 unite to form the upper trunk.
What root comprises the middle trunk?
C7 alone forms the middle trunk.
What roots form the lower trunk?
C8-T1 form the lower trunk.
Each BP trunk splits into what?
Each trunk splits into an ANTERIOR and POSTERIOR DIVISION. Anterior divisions carry fibers destined for the anterior/flexor compartments of the upper limbs, while posterior divisions carry only fibers for the posterior/extensor compartments.
What do anterior divisions carry fibers to?
Anterior divisions carry fibers destined for the anterior/flexor compartments of the upper limbs.
What do posterior divisions carry fibers to?
Posterior divisions carry only fibers for the posterior/extensor compartments.
What are the BP cords named for/with regard to?
The cords are named for their relationship to the axillary artery. All three posterior divisions unite to form the posterior cord.
The posterior cord contains nerve fiers from what levels?
Posterior cord contains nerve fibers from C5-T1 that are heading for the posterior compartments.
The anterior divisions give rise to two cords...
The anterior divisions give rise to two cords, the LATERAL and MEDIAL CORDS.
The lateral cord contains fibers from...
The lateral cord contains fibers from the anterior divisions of the upper and middle trunks C5-C7.
The medial cord contains fibers from...
The medial cord contains fibers from the ANTERIOR DIVISION OF THE LOWER TRUNK (C8-T1).
Together the lateral medial cords supply...
Together the lateral medial cords supply the ANTERIOR COMPARTMENTS OF THE UPPER LIMBS.
Terminal branches of the BP?
1. Musculocutaneous
2. Median
3. Ulnar
4. Axillary
5. Radial
What does the axillary nerve supply?
The axillary nerve (C5-C6) supplies the deltoid and teres minor muscles and skin of the deltoid region (deltoid=chief abductor of the shoulder).
What does the radial nerve supply?
The radial nerve (C5-T1) supplies muscles int he posterior/extensor compartments of the arm and forearm, as well as skin on the posterior surfaces of the arm, forearm, and hand. *Radial nerve-think extension (elbow and wrist).
What does the musculocutaneous nerve supply?
The musculocutaneous nerve (C5-C6) supplies motor to the muscles in the anterior/flexor compartment of the ar, then passes distal to the elbow to become the lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm, supplying the skin there. *Musculocutaneous nerve-think elbow flexors.
What does the lateral root of the median nerve supply?
The lateral root of the median nerve, together with the medial root from the medial cord, forms the median nerve.
What does the ulnar nerve supply?
The ulnar nerve (C8-T1) supplies a few muscles in the forearm and skin along the medial border of the forearm, but its main job is to supply most of the intrinsic muscles of the hand.
What does the median nerve supply?
The median nerve (C6-T1) supplies all of the muscles in the anterior compartment of the forearm EXCEPT FOR 1 1/2 MUSCLES and most of the muscles that move the thumb in the hand, specifically those located in the thenar eminence. It is the main nerve of pronation, flexion of the wrist, flexion of the digits, and movements of the thumb. It also supplies most of the sensation on the palm of the hand, especially the finger tips of the first three digits.
What is the main nerve of pronation, flexion of the wrist, flexion of the digits, and movements of the thumb?
Median nerve
Dorsal scapular nerve supplies?
Dorsal scapular nerve (C5 root) supplies the two rhomboid muscles and the levator scapulae muscles.
Long thoracic nerve supplies?
Long thoracic nerve (C5-C7 roots) supplies the serratus anterior.
Suprascapular nerve supplies?
Suprascapular nerve (upper trunk: C5-C6) supplies the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles.
Lateral pectoral nerve supplies?
Lateral pectoral nerve (lateral cord) supplies mainly the pectoralis major but may send a twig to the medial pectoral nerve to help supply pec minor.
Medial pectoral nerve supplies?
Medial pectoral nerve (medial cord) supplies pectoralis major and minor.
Medial cutaneous nerve of arm supplies?
Medial cutaneous nerve of arm (medial cord) supplies skin o the medial arm (these fibers intermingle in the arm with fibers from the intercostovrachial nerve-thus, T2 fibers figure in the innervation of the medial arm skin.
What nerve does the medial cutaneous nerve of the arm intermingle with?
Medial cutaneous nerve of the arm intermingles in the arm with fivers from the intercostobrachial nerve.
Upper and lower subscapular nerves supply?
Upper and lower subscapular nerves (posterior cord) suppy the subscapularis muscle, but the lower sub scapular nerve also supplie the teres major muscle.
Thoracodorsal nerve supplies?
Thoracodorsal nerve (posterior cord) supplies the latissimus dorsi.
What nerve supplies all the muscles in the anterior compartment of the arm?
Musculocutaneous nerve supplies all the muscles in the anterior compartment of the arm-its the nerve of elbow flexion.
What nerves pass through the anterior compartment of the arm?
Median, ulnar, and radial nerves pass through the anterior compartment of the arm.
What nerve innervates the triceps and skin over the posterior compartment?
The radial nerve (from the posterior cord of the BP) nnervates the triceps and skin over the posterior compartment-radial nerve is the nerve of extension. Just superior to the elbow, the radial nerve curves into the lateral part of the anterior compartment of the arm, and over the lateral epicondyle of the humerus it divides into a superficial and deep branch.
The biceps brachii has two points of insertion...
The biceps brachii has two points of insertion:
To the radial tuberosity via the biceps tendon and to the common tendon of the forearm flexor muscles via the bicipital aponeurosis. Both insertions are distal to the elbow, so the biceps acts on the elbow joint (supination and flexion). The long head of the biceps also crosses the shoulder joint, so it can act as a weak flexor of the shoulder.
The brachial artery passes through the arm where it gives off...
The brachial artery passes through the arm where it gives off the deep artery of the arm.
What two nerves accompany the brachial artery?
Median and ulnar nerves accompany the brachial artery, but neither nerve innervates arm structures-they're just passing through.
Muscles of the anterior/flexor compartment?
1. Coracobrachialis
2. Brachialis
3. Biceps brachii
What is the bicipital aponeurosis?
The bicipital aponeurosis is a band of fibrous tissue that leaves the biceps tendon to fuse with the deep fascia on the flexor surface of the forearm-and through this fascia, attaches to the ulna; it is through this aponeurosis that the biceps exerts its flexor action at the elbow.
The brachial artery is the distal continuation of...
The brachial artery is the distal continuation of the axillary artery; it begins at the inferior border of the teres major muscle.
What accompanies the brachial artery in the arm?
The brachial artery is accompanied in the arm by the median nerve and basilic vein. This large neurovascular bundle occupies the deep groove in the medial arm between the biceps, the brachialis, and the medial head of the triceps.
What is the largest branch of the brachial artery?
The deep artery of the arm (profunda brachii artery) is the largest branch of the brachial artery.
What is the major source of blood to muscles in the arm?
The deep artery is the major source of blood to muscles in the arm. It arises from the posterior side of the brachial artery in the anterior compartment and follows the course of the radial nerve into the posterior compartment.
Where does the brachial artery terminate?
The brachial artery terminates in the cubital fossa, where it divides into the radial and ulnar arteries.
What forms the brachial veins?
Brachial veins are formed by the union of the paired radial and ulnar veins.
Where are cephalic and basilic veins?
Cephalic and basilic veins are in the superficial fascia, along the pre axial and postaxial borders of the arm, respectively.