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162 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Axial
skull, vertebral column, rib cage
appendicular
girdles and limbs
Long Bones
longer than wider; most bones of limbs, including fingers
Short Bones
cube like; wrist and ankle, mostly spongy bone
Short Bones- Sesamoid
Like patella; within tendon; variety
Flat Bones
skull (most), ribs, sternum
Irregular Bone
do not fit other classes; vertebrae and hip bones
Bone Markings
bulges, depressions, holes; attachment, articulation, passage
Attachment sites
usually a projection; tendon or ligament
Attach. Site- Tuberosity
large rounded projection; deltoid tuberosity
Attach. Site-Crest
narrow ridge of bone; iliac crest; abdominal muscles
Attach. Site-trochanter
large, blunt, irregular, femur, some muscles of hip joint
Attach. Site-Line
narrow ridge of bone; linea aspera; thigh muscles
Attach. Site-tubercule
mall rounded projection; humerus; muscle attachment
Attach. Site-epicondyle
projection above condyle
Attach. Site-spine
sharp pointed process; scapula; muscle attachment
Attach. Site-process
any prominence; spinous process
Articulation Surfaces
projections, flatting, depression
Art. Surf.-Head
bony expansion; narrow neck; head of femur
Art. Surf.-facet
smooth articulating surfaces; thoracic vertebrae
Art. Surf.-condyle
rounded articulation projection
Art. Surf.-ramus
arm like; mandible
Art. Surf.-fossa
depression; articulation surface
Passage-
blood vessels; nerves; other opening
Passage-Sinus
cavity in bone; lined with mucus membrane; air
Passage-groove
furrow; intertuburcular groove humerus; tendon biceps
Passage-fissure
narrow slit like opening; superior orbital fissure
Passage-foreman
hole; mental foramen of mandible
Passage-meatus
canal; auditory meatus
AXIAL SKELETON:
Cranium
portion of the skull which protects the brain
Sutures
where cranial bones articulate with other cranial bones
Occipitamastoid Suture
between occipital and temporal bones
Frontal bone:
Supraorbital foramen
nerve, artery passage
Frontal bone:
Frontal Sinus
air filled space
Parietal Bones
superiolateral bones of cranium
Occipital bone
posterior wall and base of cranium
Frontal Bone
anterior portion of cranium
Occipital bone:
foramen magnum
large hole where spinal cord meets the brain
Occipital bone:
occipital condyle
two; articulate with first vertebrae
Occipital bone:
external occipital protuberance
bump on the back of the head
Temporal Bone
inferiolateral bones of the cranium
Temporal Bone:
Zygomatic process
zygomatic bone; cheek bone
Temporal Bone:
mandibular fossa
articulation with mandible
Temporal Bone:
external auditory meatus
external ear canal
Temporal Bone:
styloid process
tongue neck muscle attachment
Temporal Bone:
mastoid process
neck muscle attachment
Temporal Bone:
jugular foramen
at junction with occipital; internal jugular vein; 3 cranial nerves
Temporal Bone:
cartoid canal
anterior to above; internal carotid
Temporal Bone:
internal acoustic meatus
facial and vestibulocochlear nerves
Sphenoid Bone
middle of cranium inferiorly; articulates, all bones of the cranium
Sphenoid Bone:
Sphenoid sinuses
paired; in body of the sphenoid
Sphenoid Bone:
sella turcica
pituitary gland
Sphenoid Bone:
greater wing
orbit; cranial fossa; xternal wall
Sphenoid Bone:
lesser wing
orbit; cranial fossa
Sphenoid Bone:
optic foramen
optic nerve
Sphenoid Bone:
superior orbital fissure
between greated and lesser wings; eye muscle control
Ethmoid Bone
anterior to sphenoid bone; much of the medial orbit and nasal cavities
Ethmoid Bone:
cribriform plate
roof of nasal cavaties; olfactory foramina
Ethmoid Bone:
crista galli
dura matter attached; secures the brain
Ethmoid Bone:
perpendicular plate
superior part of the nasal septum
Ethmoid Bone:
lateral masses
left and right
Ethmoid Bone:
ethmoid sinuses
in the lateral masses
Ethmoid Bone:
nasal concha
superor and medial
Cranial Fossa
floor of cranium; three distinct ridges
Cranial Fossa:
posterior cranial fossa
occipital bone
Cranial Fossa:
middle cranial fossa
sphenoid and part of the temporal
Cranial Fossa:
anterior cranial fossa
mostly frontal, ethmoid
SKULL: FACIAL BONES
Mandible
lower jaw
Mandible:
body
forms the chin
Mandible:
ramus
the uprights
Mandible:
mandibular angle
where ramus meets angle
Mandible:
coronoid process
chewing muscle insertion; temporalis muscle
Mandible:
mandibular condyle
to madibular fossa temporal bone; temporomandibular joint
Mandible:
alveolar margin
body; part which contains sockets (alveoli)
Mandible:
mandibular foramina
medial side of each ramus; nerve; teeth; novacain
Mandible:
mental foramina
blood and nerves to chin, lower lip
Maxillary bone
upper jaw; this bone articulates with most other facial bones
Max. Bone:
alveolar margin
upper teeth
Max. Bone:
palatine process
anterior 2/3rd of the hard palate
Max. Bone:
maxillary sinuses
largest; most inferior
Zygomatic Bone
cheek and inferiolateral orbit; temporal, frontal, and mazillar
Nasal Bone
fused paired bones; bridge of nose
Lacrimal Bone
anteriomedial aspect of the orbit
lacrimal fossa
tears to nasal cavity; lacrimal puncta; sac; canal; nasolacrimal duct
Palatine Bone
forms the posterior portion of the hard palate
Vomer
forms the inferior portion of the nasal septum
Inferior nasal concha
shelf-like projections form the lateral wall of the nasal cavity
SKULL: ORBIT
Orbit
houses eyes, ocular muscles, and tear glands; formed by seven bones
frontal bone
forms the superior wall of the orbit
lacrimal bone
forms the anteriomedial aspect of the orbit
Sphenoid Bone
forms the dorsal aspect of the orbit
Sphenoid bone:
optic foramen
optic nerve passes through
Sphenoid Bone:
superior orbital fissure
between greater and lesser wing
Ethmoid Bone
between lacrimal and sphenoid bones
Zygomatic bone
inferiolateral portion of the orbit
maxillary bone
inferiomedial portion of the orbit
palatine bone
forms small part of the inferior wall
SKULL: NASAL CAVITY
Roof
cribiform plate(ethmoid)
Lateral Walls
from superior to inferior
Lateral Walls:
superior concha
from ethmoid
Lateral Walls:
middle concha
from ethmoid
Lateral Walls:
inferior nasal concha
seperate bone
Lateral Walls:
perpendicular plate
palatine bone
Floor
roof of oral cavity
Floor:
Palatine Process
maxillary bone
Floor:
palatine bone
posterior to above
Nasal Septum
several components
Nasal Septum:
Vomer
posterior and inferior
Nasal Septum:
perpendicular plate (ethmoid)
posterior and superior
Nasal Septum:
cartilage
anteriorly
SKULL: PARANASAL SINUSES
paranasal sinuses
openings in skull; all paired; to nasal cavity via small canals
functions
lighten skull; warm inspired air; resonate voice
frontal sinus
most superior
sphenoid
anterior to ethmoid; found in body
ethmoid
two lateral masses are riddled with openings
Maxillary
the largest and most inferior
HYOID BONE
Hyoid bone
does not articulate with other bonjes; anchor for several muscles
Larynx
suspended by hyoid bone
FONTANELS
Fontanels
remnants of unossified remnants; compressed during birth
Anterior fontanel
between frontal and parietal; 1.5 to 2 years after birth; superior
anterolateral fontanel
sphenoid, temporal, frontal, and parietal; lateral
posterolateral fontanel
temporal, occipital, and parietal; lateral
posterior fontanel
between parietal and occipital
VERTEBRAL COLUMN: LIGAMENTS
Ligaments
support the vertebral column
anterior longitudinal ligament
resists hyperextension; bending too far back
posterior longitudinal ligament
resist hyperflexion; bending too far forward
Other ligaments
such as the supraspinous ligament
VERTEBRAL COLUMN: INTERVETEBRAL DISC
intervetebral discs
forms cushions between the body of each vertebra
Nucleus pulposus
inner semifluid portion; elasticity and compressability
annulus fibrosis
ring, fibrocartilage; connects vetrebrae holds in nucleus pulposus
herniated disc
annulus fibrosis, ruptured; nucleus pulposus protrudes; pressing on
VETEBRAL COLUMNS: DIVISIONS
Cervical
contains seven vertebrae
thoracic
contains 12
lumbar
contains 5
sacrum
contains 5 fused; articulates with pelvis
Coccyx
4 fused
VERTEBRAL COLUMN: CURVATUREs
S shaped in appearance
Function
springiness
cervical
concave to the posterior
thoracic
convex to the posterior
lumbar
concave to the posterior
sacrum
convex to the posterior
primary curvatures
thoracic and sacral in fetus
secondary curvatures
cervical and lumbar after birth
abnormalities
congenital, poor posture, disease, and unequal muscle pull
abnormalities:
scoliosis
lateral curve; most often in the thoracic region; girls; body braces
abnormalities:
kyphosis
hunchback dorsally exaggerated thoracic curveature; osteoporosis
abnormalities:
lordosis
exaggerated lumbar curvature; prgnant woman; men with beer bellies
VERTEBRAL COLUMN: VERTEBRAL STRUTURE
body
anterior weight bearing, disc shaped structure
vertebral arch
posterior arch of bone
vertebral foramen
opening between arch and body
vertebral canal
successive vertebral foramina; spinal cord
spinous process
posteriorly projection
transverse process
two extend laterally from each arch
articular surfaces
two superiod and two inferior
VERTEBRAL COLUMN: ATLAS AND AXIS
atlas
C1; no body or spinous process; articulates with occipital condyles(up and down movement of the skull)
axis
C2; Includes odentoid process (dens)knob like structure; rotates head like saying "no"
VERTEBRAL COLUMN: REGIONAL CHARACTERISTICS
Characteristics of Cervical vertebrae

spinous process
short, split; straight back; most
Characteristics of Cervical vertebrae

transverse foramina
vertebral artery; in transverse process
characteristics of Thoracic vertebrae

spinous process
long; points inferiorly
characteristics of Thoracis vertebrae

facets
on transverse processes; articulating with ribs
characteristics of lumbar vert.

spinous process
short, blunt, directly to posterior