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### 21 Cards in this Set

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 What is standard temperature and pressure? 29.92 Hg’s at 15’C (59’F). This is the standard atmosphere. Name and describce the 5 types of altitude. 1. True Altitude - The actual height above mean sea level (MSL). 2. Indicated Altitude - The altitude displayed on the altimeter. 3. Pressure Altitude - The theoretical altitude if the pressure was standard. 4. Absolute Altitude - The height above ground level (AGL) 5. Density Altitude (DA) - The theoretical altitude corrected for non-standard temperature. Critical to aircraft performance. What is pressure gradient force? Pressure Gradient Force- The air traveling from a higher pressure system to lower pressure system, flows directly across the isobars. What is Coriolis force? Coriolis Force- Due to the rotation of the Earth, air is deflected 90 degrees as it moves. a. To the right in the northern hemisphere. b. To the left in the southern hemisphere What behavior develops as a reaction between pressure gradient and Coriolis force? Between pressure gradient and coriolis forces, the air is forced to move parallel to the isobars. a. Clockwise around highs. b. Counter clockwise around lows. -High -Low Downward Upward Outward Inward Clockwise Counter-Clockwise What is friction force? Friction force- Closer to the surface, air is forced to move at an angle toward the lower pressure. Friction from the surface decreases the speed, hence, the effect of coriolis. What is katabatic wind? Any form of wind moving down a slope. Describe the effect on wind produced by mountains and valleys. Mountain and Valley winds- 1. Daytime - warmer air is forced up slope 2. Night time - Cooler air is forced down slope Describe land and sea breeze. Land and Sea breeze - Because land changes temperature more easily then water. 1. Daytime - Cooler air from the sea moves inland. 2. Night time - Cooler air from the land moves out to sea. What is instability and what are the characteristics of stable and unstable air? Stability in the atmosphere is resistance to the vertical movement of air. Instability is caused by the warming from below. Stable Unstable ------- -------- Stratiform Cumuliform Calm winds Turbulence Poor visibility Good Visibility Steady Rain Showery Rain When will fog form? When the difference between the temperature and the dew point are with in about 5 degrees, fog will generally form. Name and describe the 4 types of fog. Radiation Fog - Low laying flat areas on calm, cool, humid nights. Advection - Under cloudy skies and coastal areas. Wind moves moisture inland. Up Slope - Moist air is forced up a slope into cooler air. Steam Fog - Sea Smoke, cool, dry air moves out to the moister sea. Name the 4 base altitudes of each corresponding cloud. a. Low- Stratus-SFC to 6,500’ b. Middle-Alto- 6,500 to 20,000 c. High-Cirrus-Bases over 20,000 d. Vertical-Towering-Covers 2 or more. What are the four cloud types? Stratus - Layer (sheet like) Cumulus - Heap (puffy) Cirrus - Ringlet (whispy) Nimbus - Violent rain What is air mass modification and what are 4 occurrences? Air Mass Modification- As an air mass passes over another geographical region it may be modified. A. Warming from below i. Instability and showers B. Cooling from below i. Stability C. Adding moisture i. Raise in dew point D. Removing moisture i. Precipitation What is a front? A front is a zone between two or more air masses -Winds, temps, and humidity will often change rapidly through a frontal system. Name and describe the 4 types of fronts. 1. Warm Front - Warmer air replacing a cooler air mass. 2. Cold Front - Cooler air replacing a warmer air mass. 3. Stationary Front - A front that is not moving. 4. Occluded Front - One front has overtaken another. -Stability and moisture content in each air mass determines the weather that may be found near a frontal zone. What are the 3 things required for a thunderstorm? 1. High Humidity 2. Unstable Air 3. Lifting action or force Describe a thunderstorm's life cycle. 1. Cumulus Stage - Hard updrafts, and rapidly building towering cumulus clouds. 2. Mature Stage - Up and down drafts and precipitation will begin to fall. 3. Dissipation Stage - Precipitation is ending and strong downdrafts. How far away should you fly from a thunderstorm? Always avoid thunderstorms by at least 20 NM What conditions are always associated with thunderstorms? IFR, Turbulence, and lightning are always associated with thunderstorms