Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/94

Click to flip

94 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the two components of the ANS?
Sympathetic
Parasympathetic
What controls smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, exocrine and endocrine glands?
Autonomic NS
Fight or Flight
Sympathetic
Rest and Digest
Parasympathetic
This part of the nervous system controls your internal environment.
Autonomic NS
In the Sympathetic NS, the preganglionic neurons are ____ and the postganglionic neurons are ____.
short
long
Where do the preganglionic neurons of the sympathetic NS arise from?
T1-L2
Preganglionic neurons of sympathetic NS-
Soma located where?
Exit the ventral horn and go to the __?
Intermediolateral horn
sympathetic ganglionic trunk (at the same or different level)
Where are sympathetic ganglia located?
Are there any exceptions to this?
Primarily located in the sympathetic ganglionic trunk along the spinal column.
Exceptions include the Celiac ganglion and Hypogastric plexus which are located outside the trunk.
The postganglionic neurons of the sympathetic NS are ___ and synapse at the ___.
long
target organ
This part of the NS controls things when you are in a resting state.
Parasympathetic NS
Where are the nerve cell bodies of the preganglionic neurons of the parasympathetic NS located?
located in SOME of the cranial nerves. Most exit spinal column near the brainstem but Vagus Nerve goes all the way down the spine with different exits along the way.
There is no ganglionic trunk for the ____ NS.
Parasympathetic
Which Cranial Nerves are important for carrying parasympathetic preganglionic fibers in the Head Region?
Cranial Nerve III- Occulomotor n.
Cranial Nerve VII- Facial n.
Cranial Nerve IX- Glossopharyngeal n.
Which Cranial Nerves are important for carrying parasympathetic preganglionic fibers to the Thorax and Abdomen Regions?
Cranial Nerve X- Vagus n.
This division of the ANS has short preganglionic and long postganglion nerves.
Sympathetic
This division of the ANS has long preganglionic and short postganglionic nerves.
Parasympathetic
Where are parasympathetic ganglia located (with regards to the target organ)?
Parasympathetic ganglia are very near or in their target organs.
Where do you find postgangliong parasympathetic nerves?
They are very short and would only be found between the parasympathetic ganglia and the adjacent target organ.
This part of the ANS is NOT involved in innervation of the muscle of blood vessels.
Parasympathetic NS
The smooth muscle of blood vessels is controlled by what?
More or less stimulation by the sympathetic NS. (Parasympathetics not involved.)
How many paths can autonomic nerves take when exiting the spinal cord?
4 paths.
Postganglionic can exit at level above preganglionic, same level, level below or outside the sympathetic trunk all together.
In most organs autonomics oppose each other. What is this called?
Antagonism
Explain how parasympathetics and sympathetics are synergistic when you start to exercise and then to run.
When you start exercise:
DECREASE parasympathetic tone (so decrease the messages that were telling you to slow down), causing HR to increase.
When you start to run:
INCREASE sympathetic tone, HR increases even more. (the message is now saying to speed up)
What are the exceptions to the general rules about balance between sympathetics and parasympathetics? (Great board questions.)
1) Sympathetics only to peripheral blood vessels.
2) Sympathetics only to glycogenolysis.
3) Sympathetic innervation disappears in late pregnancy uterus.
Why does sympathetic innervation disappear in the late pregnancy uterus?
Sympathetics normally contract a uterus. You dont want to be having contractions in the third trimester. The receptor sites are still present on the smooth muscle so messages can be sent out via NE and EPI.
What NT is released in the Sympathetic NS at the pregangliong synapse? Postganglinic?
Preganglionic= ACh
Postganglionic= NE
What NT is released in the Parasympathetic NS at the preganglionic synapse? Postganglionic?
ACh
ACh
Parasympathetic ganglionic synapses can be stimulated by ___ which binds to postsynaptic ____ receptor sites.
Nicotine
nAChRs
In Parasympathetics, end organ receptors can be stimulated by ____.
Muscarine
Amanita Muscaria Toxin
Where does this act? What type of receptor?
Acts on target organs because they have muscarinic ACh receptor sites.
What are the two types of parasympathetic ACh Receptor sites?
Nicotinic
Muscarinic
Parasympathomimetic aka
cholinergic
mimic?
Mimic normal (meaning they mimic the action of ACh)
Parasympatholytic aka anticholinergic
effect?
antagonize ACh
What lytic agent acts at the ganglionic synapse?
Hexamethonium
What lytic agent acts at the endplate synapse?
Atropine
What is the overall effect of Hexamethonium?
Blocks ALL autonomic outflow. Very nasty drug.
What is the effect of Atropine if taken orally? Why is this useful?
Stops salivation.
Useful if you have a tube down your throat.
Where and how does Atropine act?
Antagonizes muscarinic AChRs in the parasympathetic end receptors.
What binds at an adrenergic receptor site?
NE OR EPI
These receptors vary. They all respond to NE but different receptor sites have differing configuration and respond to different drugs.
Adrenergic receptors. (Sympathetics)
What are the two main classes of Adrenergic receptors?
Alpha and Beta
NE>EPI at these receptors.
Alpha Adrenergic
This classic drug is an agonist of alpha adrenergic receptors.
Phenylephrine
This drug specifically blocks alpha adrenergic receptors.
Phenotalmine
These sympathetic receptors respond equally to Epi and NE.
B1
What kind of beta adrenergic receptors are in the heart?
B1
What kind of beta adrenergic receptors are in the bronchioles?
B2
This type of adrenergic receptor responds much more to Epi than to NE.
B2
Propranolol
Beta blocker
Beta adrenergic antagonists.
Acts on B1 and B2.
What is the result of sympathetic release of ACh on the Adrenal Medulla?
Adrenal medulla secretes a lot of EPI and a little NE into the blood which goes everywhere leading to a generalized FLIGHT response.
Where would you find chromaffin cells? What do these do?
Found in the Adrenal Medulla.
Secrete EPI and NE leading to generalized flight response.
Parasympathetic and Sympathetic Ganglion.
NT?
Mimetic?
Lytic?
NT= ACh
Mimetic= Nicotine
Lytic= Trimethapan
Parasympathetic target-
NT?
Mimetic?
Lytic?
NT= ACh
Mimetic= Muscarine
Lytic= Atropine
Sympathetic target-
NT?
Mimetic?
Lytic?
NT= alpha: NE>E, B1: NE=E, B2: E>>NE
Alpha Mimetic= Phenylephrine
Alpha Lytic= Phentolamine
Beta Mimetic= Isoproterenol
Beta Lytic= Propranolol
What is a clinical example of a parasympathomimetic and what does it do?
Bethanechol
Stimulates normal GI motility after surgery
What is a clinical example of an alpha adrenergic blocker and what does it do?
Prazosin (Minipress)
Common for reversal of hypertension
What is a clinical example of a B Adrenergic blocker and what does it do?
Propranolol (Inderol)
Treats ischemic heart disease and hypertension.
As a rule:
Alpha Adrenergic Receptors cause smooth muscle ___.
Contractions
As a rule:
B2 receptors on smooth muscle cause __?
Active relaxation
As a rule:
M receptors on smooth muscles cause ___?
Contractions
Pupil
SNS?
PSNS?
SNS- Dilated (alpha 1 constricts radial m.)
PSNS- Constricted (M contracts circular m.)
Ciliary Muscle
SNS?
PSNS?
SNS- Slight relaxation (B2)
PSNS- Contracted (M)
Horner's Syndrome
symptoms?
Pupil constricts in one eye.
Superior eyelid droops.
Dilation of ipsilateral blood vessels.
No sweating on ipsilateral side.
Receptor Rules:
alpha on smooth muscle?
B2 on smooth muscle?
B1 on heart?

Muscarinic on smooth muscle?
Muscarinic on glands?
Muscarinic on heart?
Contraction
Relaxation
Stimulation

Contraction
Secretion
Inhibition
Lungs (Bronchi)
SNS?
PSNS?
SNS- Dilated (B2)
PSNS- Constrict bronchi/ stimulate bronchi secretions
This is a B2 agonist used for asthmatics.
Albuterol
COPD
Increased parasympathetic tone to lungs. (So lots of secretions)
Skeletal Muscles
SNS?
PSNS?
SNS- Increased glycogenolysis/strength
PSNS- No effect
Sweat Glands (Skin)
SNS?
PSNS?
SNS- Copious sweating
alpha on hands
M everywhere else
PSNS- No effect
Salivary Glands
SNS?
PSNS?
SNS- little effect and minor importance
PSNS- Copious secretion of H2O and enzymes
Glands
(Nasal, Lacrimal, Parotid, Submaxillary, Gastric, Pancreatic)
SNS?
PSNS?
Secretion results from stimulation by either.
Apocrine Glands
SNS?
PSNS?
SNS- Thick, odoriferous secretion
PSNS- No effect
Piloerector Muscles
SNS?
PSNS?
SNS- Excited
PSNS- No effect
Liver
SNS?
PSNS?
SNS- Glucose released
PSNS- Slight glycogen synthesis
Gallbladder
SNS?
PSNS?
SNS- Relaxed
PSNS- Contracted
Lumen of Gut
SNS?
PSNS?
SNS- Decreased peristalsis and tone (alpha)
PSNS- Increased peristalsis and tone (M)
Sphincter of Gut
SNS?
PSNS?
SNS- Increased tone (alpha)
PSNS- Relaxed (M)
Detrusor Muscle of Bladder
SNS?
PSNS?
SNS- Relaxed -> filling (B2)
PSNS- Excited -> Emptying (M)
Trigone Muscle of Bladder
SNS?
PSNS?
SNS- Excited -> filling (alpha)
PSNS- Relaxed -> emptying (M)
Micturition
Stretch receptors send afferent message. Parasympathetic sends efferent message. Contract detrusor/ relax trigone.
Penis
SNS?
PSNS?
Point and Shoot
SNS- Emission and Ejaculation
PSNS- Erection
Blood Coagulation
SNS?
PSNS?
SNS- Increased
PSNS- No effect
Blood Glucose
SNS?
PSNS?
SNS- Increased
PSNS- No effect
Adrenal Cortical Secretion
SNS?
PSNS?
SNS- Increased secretion of EPI/NE by chromaffin cells
PSNS- No effect
Heart-
AV Node
SA Node
Ventricular Muscle

SNS?
PSNS?
SNS-
AV Node: Increased conduction velocity (B1)
SA Node: Increased heart rate (B1)
Ventricular Muscle: increased force of contraction (B1)

PSNS-
AV Node: Decreased conduction velocity (M)
SA Node: Slowed heart rate (M)
Ventricular Muscle: little effect
The stomach and intestines have autonomic control superimposed on their own nerve plexus control system. What does this mean?
We modify gut motor function with autonomics. Works together.
What is the effect on the bladder if you have sacral cord damage?
No reflex. The bladder stays full because the PSNS arent there to properly relax the sphincters. Excess pressure causes constant dribbling.
What is the effect on the bladder if you have totally sever the spinal cord above the sacral area (quadriplegic).
Reflex is intact but there are no higher inputs for initiation. (So you pee when your bladder is full but your brain isnt saying when.)
What is an uninhibited neurogenic bladder?
Damaged higher brain centers for inhibition.
Any filling stretch initiates reflex micturition. Could be caused by a stroke.
Explain ganglionic convergence and divergence in terms of parasympathetics and sympathetics.
PSNS- preganglionic generally synapse with few postganglionic cells (CONVERGENCE)

SNS- preganglionic cells generally synapse with many postganglionic cells (DIVERGENCE)
What is the higher brain origin of the resting tone of sympathetic control of vasculature?
Medulla Oblongata
Hyperesthesia
increased sensitivity to touch
Hyperalgesia
increased sensitivity to pain