Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/107

Click to flip

107 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is the g-protein class and function of alpha1 receptor
q, increase vascular smooth muscle contraction
what is the g-protein class and function of alpha2 receptor
i, decrease sympathetic outflow, decrease insulin release
what is the g-protein class and function of beta 1 receptor
s, increase heart rate, increase contractility, increase renin release, increase lipolysis, increase aqueous humor formation
what is the g-protein class and function of beta2 receptor
s, vasodilation, bronchodilatoin, increase glucagon release
what is the g-protein class and function of m1 receptor?
q, CNS
what is the g-protein class and function of m2 recpetor
i, decrease heart rate
what is the g-protein class and function of m3 receptor
increase exocrine gland secretions
what is the g-protein class and function of d1 receptor?
s, relaxes renal vascular smooth muscle
what is the g-protein class and function of d2 receptor?
i, modulates transmiter releases esp in brain
what is the g-protein class and function of h1 receptor?
q, increase nasal and bronchiol mucus production, contract bronchioles, prurities, and pain
what is the g-protein class and function of h2 receptor
s, increase gastric acid seretion
what is the g-protein class and function of v1 receptor?
q, increase vascular smooth muscle contraction
what is the g-protein class and function of v2 receptor?
s, increase water permeability and reabsorption in the collecting tubules of the kidney
what does hemicholinium do?
block choline from entering
what does vesamicol do?
block choline acetyltransferase
what is the funciton of reserpine
prevent dopamine to norepinephrine
what is the function of guanethidine
block norepinephrine release
function of amphetamine
increase norepinephrine release
what are the 3 modulating recpetors for noradrenergic terminals
angiotensin II reeptor, alpha 2 recpetors (feedback inhibtion, and m1 receptors (block w/ acetylcholine) - think parasympathetic
name three cholinomimetics that are direct agonists
bethanecol, carbachol, pilocarpine
postoperative and neurogenic ileus and urinary retention
bethanecol
action of bethanecol
ativates bowel and bladder smooth muscle, acetylcholinesterase resistanct
name 2 cholinomimetic drugs for glaucoma
pilocarpine and carbachol
mechanism of pilocarpine/carbachol
activates ciliary muscle, pupillary sphincter, acetylcholinesterase resistant
namd 5 anticholinesterases
neostigmine, pyridostigmine, edrophonium, echothiophate, and physostigmine
postoperative and neurogenic ileus and urinary retention, myasthenia gravis, reversal of neuromuscular blockade
neostigmine
chronic myasthenia gravis
pyridostigmine
diagnosis of myasthena gravis (short acting)
edrophonium
glaucoma and atropine overdose (anticholinesterase)
physostigmine
anticholinestersase for just glaucoma
echothiophate
shortest acting anticholinesterase
edrophonium
name 9 side effects of cholinesterase inhibitor poisoning
diarrhea, urination, miosis, bronchospasm, bradychardia, excitation skeletal muscle/cns, lacrimatoin, sweating, salivation
what is the general side effect of cholinesterase inhibitor poisoning
parasympathetic (too much ACh)
what is the antitdote for cholinesterase inhibitor poisoning
atropine plus pralidoxime (direct antagonist- regenerate cholinesterase)
name poisons that are cholinesterase inhibitors
insecticides (parathion and other organophosphates)
name 3 cholinoreceptor blockers for the eye
atropine, homatropine, tropicamide
parkinson's disease cholinoreceptor blocker
benztropine
motion sickness
scopolamine
asthma, copd - cholinoreceptor blocker
ipratropium
3 cholinoreceptor blockers for reducing urgency in mild cystitis and reduce bladder spasm
methscopolamine, oxybutin, glycopyrrolate
name the 4 general blockage effects of atroipine
salivation, lacrimation, urination, defecation
what is the general function of blocking cholinoreceptors?
sympathetic tone
what is the general class that atropine is in
muscarinic antagonist
what are 7 toxicities for atropine?
increaes body temperature, rapid pulse, dry mouth, dry flushed skin, cycloplegia, constipation, disorientation
name 3 specific contraindications of atropine
acute close-angle glaucoma in elderly, urinary retention in BPH men, hyperthermia in infants
hexamethonium mechanism
nicotinic ach receptor blocker
what is clinical use for hexamethonium
ganglion blocker so blocks vagal reflex responses to changes in blood pressure (blocks sympathetic)
mechanism of epinephrine
direct general agonist a1, a2, b1, b2
mechanism of norepi
a1, a2, b1 (a>b)
mechanism of isoproterenol
b1=b2>a
dopamine mechanism
d1=d2>b>a
dobutamine mechanism
b1>b2
4 applications for epinephrine
anaphylaxis, glaucoma (open angle), asthma, hypotension
major application for norepinephrine
hypotension (decreae renal perfusion though)
major use for isoproterenol
av block (rare)
major use for dopamine
shock (increase renal perfusion), heart failure
major use for dobutamine
shock, heart failure
mechanism of amphetamine
release store cateholamine
mechanism of ephedrine
release store catecholamines
mechanism of phenylephrine
a1>a2
mehcanism of albuterol, terbutaline
b2>b1
mechanism of cocaine
reuptake inhibitor
mechansim of clonidine and alpha-methyldopa
a-2 agonist, decrase sympathetics
3 uses for amphetamine
add, narcolepsy, obesity
3 uses for ephedrine
nasal decongestion, urinary incontinence, hypotension
3 uses for phenylephrine
pupil dilator, vasoconstriction, nasal decongestion
use for albuterol, terbutaline
asthma
applications for cocaine (2)
vasoconstriction, local anesthesia
application for clonidine, methyldopa
hypertension with renal diseaes (no decreaes in blood flow to kidneys)
application of norepinephrine to blood pressure
slightly lincrease pulse presusre, increase diastolic, increase systolic, increase mean pressure, reflex bradycardia
application of epinephrine to blood presure
slight tacahycardia, increase pulse pressure, increase systolic, decrease diastolic, same mean
application of isoproterenol to blood pressure
tachycardia, increase pulse pressure, slight increase systolic, huge decreaes mean pressure and diastolic pressure
2 nonselective alpha lbockers
phenoxybenzamine and phentolamine
application for penoxybenzamine and phentoalmine
pheochromocytoma
2 toxicities of phenoxybenzamine and phentolamine
orthostatic hypotension, reflex tachycardia
name 3 alpha 1 blcokers
prazosin, terazosin, doxazosin
2 uses for prazosin
hypertension, urinary retention in BPH
3 side effects prazosin
1-dose orthostatic hypotension, dizziness, headache
name an alpha 2 blocker
mirtazapine
function mirtazapine
depresssion
2 side effects mirtazapine
increased appetite, increased cholesterol
what happens to alpha blockade after epinephrine
predomiant beta tone, so slightly elevated systoilic, lowered diastolic and mean pressures
what happesn to alpha blockade after phenylephrine
complete reversion to baseline
how do beta-blockers correct hypertension?
decrease cardiac output, decrase renin
how do beta blockers correct angina?
decreaes heart rate and contractility, decreae oygen consumption
how do beta blockers affect MI
decrease mortality
how do beta blockers affect SVT
decreae AV conduction velocity
name 2 beta blockers used for SVT
propranolol, esmolol
how do beta blockers affect CHF
slow progression of chronic failure
what side effects of beta blockers do i not know well
hyperlipidemia, block glucagon relase (bad for diabetics)
when to use partial agonist beta-blockers
good for hypertensives with bradycardia
what is mechanism of partial agonist?
weakly stimulate recpetors when bind, decrease effect on heart rate
name the nonselective beta blockres
propranolol, timolol, nadolol, pindolol, labetolol
name the cardioselective beta blockers
acebutol, betaxolol, esmolol, atenolol, metoprool (A BEAM)
name 3 partial agnonist beta-blockers
acebutolol, pindolol, labetolol
name 2 alpha agonsits used for glaucoma
epinephrine, brimonidine
what is mechansim for alpha agonist glaucoma drugs?
increase outflow of aqueous humor
name 3 side effects of alpha agonists in glaucoma?
mydriassi, stinging, not for use in cloesd-angle
name 3 beta-bockers for glaucoma
timolol, betaxolol, carteolol
function of beta blockers in glaucoma
block B1 so decreae aqueous humor fomration
mechanism of acetazolamide in glaucoma
inhibit carbonic anyhdrase, decraes HCO3, decrease aqueous humor synthesis
name 4 cholinometics for glaucoma
pilocarpine, carbachol, physostigmine, echothipohate
mechanism of cholinomimetics in glaucoma
incrase outflow aqueous humor by contracting ciliary muscle and opineg trabeculaar meshwork
name 2 side effects cholinomimetics in glaucoma
miosis, cyclospasm
name the prostaglandin used for glaucoma?
latanoprost
mechansim of latanoprost in glaucoma?
incraes outflow by dilating vessels
side effect of latanoprost
browning of iris.