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21 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The fiber running from the spinal cord to the sympathetic trunk/lateral chain ganglia is called __ and uses __ as its neurotransmitter.
Short preganglionic fiber, ACh
The fiber running from the sympathetic trunk/lateral chain ganglia to the effector organ is called __ and usually uses ___ as its neurotransmitter, except when the effector organ is the ___ or the ___ ___, which use ___.
Long postganglionic fibers
adrenal medulla
sweat glands
Though most all organs have both opposing sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation, the exceptions are ___ ___ and ___ ___, which have LITTLE PNS innervation.
blood vessels
ventricular myocardium
Sympathetic stimulation causes blood vessels to ___ via B1 receptors, and to DILATE in the heart, skeletal muscles, skin and GI tract via the __ receptors.
alpha-1 adrenergic
Sympathetic stimulation causes the bronchial tree to ___ via __ receptors.
Beta-2 adrenergic
Release of neurotransmitters at the presynaptic terminal is mediated by influx of ___ ions after membrane ____.
Postsynaptic membrane DEPOLARIZATION results in increased permeability to ___, while postsynaptic membrane HYPERPOLARIZATION results in increased permability to ___.
Acetylcholine is made from ___ and ___, catalyzed by ___.
Acetyl CoA
CAT-choline acetyltransferase
The two types of receptors Ach can attach to on the post-synaptic membrane are __ and __.
The post-synaptic receptor located on ALL autonomic ganglia , the adrenal medulla and neuromuscular junctions is:
The post-synaptic receptor located on mostly PNS autonomic effector sites is:
Nicotinic Ach receptors are aka ___ which upon binding, cause ___ of the postsynaptic cell and ___ ion conductance to propagate the signal to the postganglionic nerve ending or effector site .
LIgand-gated ion channels
In the ANS, muscarinic cholinergic receptors are __, as are alpha and beta adrenergic receptors.
G-protein coupled
Which are faster: Ligand-gated ion channel signal transduction or G-protein coupled signal transduction? Why? Which one lasts longer? Why?
Ligand-gated ion channel signal transduction
AKA nicotinic Ach receptors, ion conductance is increased with Ach binding to the receptor, and the ion conductance depolarizes the cell immediately to transduce the signal to the effector. G-protein coupled receptors must go through many signal transduction steps before the effector is reached. G-protein coupled receptors are more like switches that can turn on and off.
G-protein coupled signal transduction lasts longer because of all of the signal amplification steps.
The "odd-numbered" muscarinic receptors, M1, M3 and M5 are coupled to the ___ signaling cascade via the __ protein.
Phospholipase C (PLC)
In the G-protein coupled pathway, activation of PLC stimulates what following steps?
Production of IP3 and DAG, which cause release of intracellular calcium stores and thus stimulation of muscle contraction or secretion from glands. DAG also activates protein kinase C, a calcium dependent kinase, which phosphorylates substances that lead to modulation of cellular function.
DAG stimulates what two other functions?
1. Intracellular Ca2+ release
2. Activation of Protein Kinase C-->cell functions
Activation of the "even" types of muscarinic receptors M2 and M4 are coupled to the enzyme __ __ via the __ protein.
adenylyl cyclase
Gi's effect on adenylyl cyclase is:
Inhibitory; decreases production of cyclic AMP
The inhibitory effects of Gi on adenylyl cyclase affect the heart how?
Negative chronotropic and ionotropic effects, associated with Ach.
To reverse the effects of Acetylcholine esterase inhibitors, you should administer __ because:
Atropine, because it is an Ach receptor blocker and will reverse some of the effects of hyperpolarization caused by Ach-esterase inhibitors/too much Ach.