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70 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Autonomic nervous system?
Controls involuntary actions.
Neuron?
Nerve cell.
Autonomic ganglia?
Groups of autonomic neurons located outside the CNS.
Pre-ganglionic nerves?
Nerve fibers that extend from the CNS to the autonomic ganglia.
Post-ganglionic nerves?
Nerve fibers that extend from the autonomic ganglia to the target tissues.
Synapse?
Space between nerve cells.
Neurotransmitter?
Chemical messenger that conducts a nervous impulse across a synapse.
The ANS is responsible all or in part for regulating the following functions...
Respiration.
Circulation.
Digestion.
Temperature.
Metabolism.
Sweating.
Some endocrine glands.
The autonomic nervous system has two divisions...
Sympathetic and parasympathetic.
Sympathetic nervous system?
Fight or flight!
Parasympathetic system?
Feed and breed.
The effect of the sypathetic system tends to be diffuse, distributed throughout the body...
Parasympathetic stimulation tends to be limited to specific organs.
T or F: The sympathetic system is essential to life in a completely controlled environment.
F: In fact, the sympathetic system is almost continuously active, making adjustments to a constantly changing environment.
During a sympathetic response, in addition to the ganglia, there is direct stimulation of the _______________.
Adrenal medulla.
The adrenal medulla then releases the hormones __________ into the circulation causing an even faster and more complete response.
NE and epi.
What are some of the effects of a sympathetic response?
BP increases.
HR increases.
RBCs from spleen.
Blood flow shifts to muscles.
CBG increases.
Bronchioles dilate.
Pupils dilate.
The parasympathetic system is involved with conservation of energy and maintenance of organ function during periods of ______________.
Minimal energy.
What are some of the effects of a parasympathetic response?
BP decreases.
HR decreases.
Pupils constrict.
GI activity.
Aids absorbption of nutrients.
Bronchioles contrict.
Two neurotransmitters used in the autonomic nervous system?
Acetylcholine (ACh).
Norepinephrine (NE).
Cholinergic?
Pertaining to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
Adrenergic?
Pertaining to the neurotransmitter norepinephrine.
Where is ACh used?
Pre-ganglionic nerves of the sympathetic system.
Pre- and post-ganglionic nerves of the parasympathetic system.
Where is NE used?
Post-ganglionic nerves of the sympathetic system.
What is cholinesterase (ChE)?
The enzyme that degrades ACh.
What are the two kinds of cholinergic receptors in the ANS?
Muscarinic and nicotinic.
Nicotinic receptors are found:
1. All preganglionic neurons of the parasympathetic and the sympathetic systems.
2. Neuromuscular junction (initiate muscle contractions as part of the somatic system).
Muscarinic receptors:
1. Found on all parasympathetic target organs.
2. Primarily responsible for promoting a parasympathetic response.
Parasympathomimetic?
Drug that causes effects like those of the parasympathetic system (also cholinergic).
Parasypatholytic?
Drug that blocks the actions of the parasympathetic system (also anticholinergic).
Anticholinergics are cholinergic receptor...
Antagonists.
muscarinic cholinergic antagonists
Most anticholinergics block the effect of ACh at the muscarinic receptors.
atropine
Competitive antagonist with ACh at the muscarinic receptors.
therapeutic uses of atropine
Low dose: salivary secretions decrease.
Moderate: HR increases, mydriasis.
High dose: Gastric motility decreases, stomach acid secretions decrease.
mydriasis
Pupil dilation.
miosis
Pupil constriction.
effects of atropine OD
Hot as hell.
Blind as a bat.
Dry as a bone.
Red as a beet.
Mad as a hatter.
Atropine?
Parasympatholytic.
atrovent (ipratropium bromide)
Synthetic anticholinergic.
Relaxes bronchial smooth muscle.
Inhaled, used in treating asthma.
Frequently given with beta agonist.
Atrovent?
Parasympatholytic.
nicotinic cholinergic antagonists
Include neuromuscular blocking agents that block nicotinic receptors at the neuromuscular junction.
Neuromuscular blocking agents are either ____________ or _______________.
Depolarizing, nondepolarizing.
What is the most common depolarizing agent?
Succinylcholine.
Sux mechanism of action
1. Binds to the receptor.
2. Acts like ACh but isn't degraded by ChE and remains bound.
3. This cayses depolarization (fasciculations) and then blockade.
4. Eventually degrades.
Nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents block ACh because they are competitive ___________.
Antagonists.
Name 2 nondepolarizing agents from your drug profiles...
Vecuronium and rocuronium.
Cholinergic drugs cause a parasympathetic response...
DUMBBELS!
DUMBBELS
Diarrhea.
Urination.
Miosis.
Bradycardia.
Bronchorrhea.
Emesis.
Lacrimation.
Salivation.
Some cholinergics are irreversible ______________ inhibitors at both muscarinic and nicotinic receptors.
Cholinesterase.
Organophosphate poisoning and nerve gas both cause extensive cholinergic stimulation leading to ________ and eventually _________.
DUMBBELS, paralysis.
Treatment includes very high doses of ________ and ___________________.
Atropine, pralidoxime (2-PAM).
Sarin?
Parasympathomimetic.
Nicotine?
Parasympathomimetic and sympathomimetic.
Sympathomimetic?
Drug that causes effects like those of the sympathetic system.
Sympatholytic?
Drug that blocks the actions of the sympathetic system.
Two known types of sympathetic receptors?
1. Dopiminergic
2. Adrenergic
alpha 1 receptors
Peripheral vasoconstriction (arterioles and veins).
Mydriasis.
Ejaculation.
Mild bronchoconstriction.
alpha 2 receptors
Limits the adrenergic response by inhibiting release of NE at the pre-synaptic termina.
beta 1 receptors
Increase heart rate, contractility, automaticity, and conduction.
Renin release from the kidneys.
beta 2 receptors
Bronchodilation.
Dilation of the arterioles.
Inhibition of uterine contractions.
alpha 1 agonists
Primarily used to raise BP through peripheral vasoconstriction.
Used topically to decrease nasal congestion.
alpha 1 agonists (examples)
Epinephrine.
Dopamine.
beta 1 agonists
Primarily used for cardiac arrest.
Used for hypotension due to inadequate pumping.
beta 1 agonists (examples)
Epinephrine.
Dopamine.
Isoproteranol.
beta 2 agonists
Used to treat bronchoconstriction (asthma, COPD, anaphylaxis).
Suppress preterm labor by relaxing uterine smooth muscle.
beta 2 agonists (examples)
Epinephrine.
Albuterol.
Epinephrine, dopamine, and albuterol?
Sympathomimetics.
alpha 1 antagonists
Primarily used to control hypertension.
Prazosin is prototype.
beta 1 antagonist
Used to control hypertension.
Used for angina and MI.
Used for SVT's.
Most commonly prescribed med in the U.S.
beta 1 antagonists (beta blockers)
Atenolol.
Propranolol.
Metoprolol.
Etc...
Beta blockers?
Sympatholytics.