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11 Cards in this Set

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Describe the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS), its 2 major divisions and specifically state the 3 organs it innervates?
The ANS is a general visceral efferent (GVE) system and its 2 major divisions are:

1. Sympathetic division
2. Parasympathetic division

The 3 organs that are innervated are:

1. Smooth muscle: visceral organs, blood vessels, arrector pili muscles

2. Glands: sweat and sebaceous glands of skin, salivary glands, other visceral glands

3. Cardiac muscle
Car SmoG
Describe and compare the 2 types of projection neurons in:

A. Sympathetic division

B. Parasympathethic division
A. Sympathetic division
1. Preganglionic cell in lateral cell column from T1 to L2.

2. Postganglionic neuron in Sympathetic chain or preaortic ganglion.

B. Parasympathethic division
1. Preganglionic neuron is in brain stem (cn’s III, VII, IX and X) or in spinal cord at S2,3,4

2. Postganglionic neuron in wall of organ.
Illustrate the projection of the sympathetic division and specifically mention the importance of the sympathetic chain ganglia?
The sympathetic division is called the thoracolumbar, or adrenergic system.


-Located in the lateral cell column of the spinal cord from T1 to L2.
-They project via the ventral roots and white communicating rami to the Sympathetic chain or preaortic ganglion.

-In the sympathetic chain, they project via gray rami communicantes to spinal nerves and innervate blood vessels, arrector pili muscles, and sweat glands.


Each spinal nerve is connected to a sympathetic chain ganglia

-In the cervical region, the sympathetic chain are fused, for c1 –c4, all fused together, so no individual sympathetic chain ganglia, you have a superior cervical ganglion for the first 4 spinal nerves (C1 –C4).

-The middle cervical ganglion is c5-c6
The inferior cervical ganglion is c7 –c8

-How are they connected to these chains, by the gray rami communicantes attachment to the sympathetic chain ganglia
So there is 4 gray rami attached to the superior cervical ganglia (c1-c4)
There are no white rami for superior cervical ganglia
Where you have the lateral present is so only T1 –L2 is where you have both white and gray rami communicantes


The top part of the spinal cord synapse the highest up on the sympathetic chain
There is spatial organization
Sweating in neck….ventral surface of dermatome C1, want sympathetic …the preganglionic is in T1, leaves via the white rami, and synapse in the 2nd
Post gang leaves in gray rami…go to ventral primary or dorsal primary rami
Illustrate SYMPATHETIC innervation to body wall?
Distinguish the difference btw:

1. Peripheral distribution
2. Motor nerve
Sympathetic innervation of the body wall includes glands (sweat glands), arrector pili muscles of hair follicles of thorax, and blood vessels (arteries).

1. Peripheral distribution of sympathetics are carried peripherally by terminal cutaneous branches of spinal nerve T1 - L2.

2. Motor nerve is part of T10 supplied by anterior ramus.

--Going to lower dermatomes e.g L4, leaves through gray rami
No parasympathetic in your body wall!!!! So your skin and skeletal muscle has no parasympathetic!!!!!
1. Give a detailed description of the sympathetic innervation of structures in head and neck?

2. What causes Horner's syndrome?
1. Head and neck is C1 - C8. No spinal nerves to your head, so no gray rami to your head!
So how do you get the sympathetic innervation in your head!
Need sympathetic in your head? Your face sweats, blood flow to skin of your face, dilator pupilae, superior tarsal. Here is what happens:

Post ganglion for most of head are in the superior cervical ganglion
Pre gang are in T1-T2, travel to synapse in superior cervical ganglion.
The superior cervical ganglion will then project its post ganglionic fibers via the internal or external carotid artery. The common carotid has external and internal so the post ganglion jump on and run with the blood vessels
First go to external carotid and then go travel with facial artery to go for face innervation.
For thyroid, go to external carotid then to thyroid artery
Sympathetic innervation to dilator pupilae, post ganglion is in superior cervical , you see the large artery, by the eye, travels with internal carotid, via the ophthalmic artery then to the orbit.

2. Say there is a tumor pressing on and putting pressure on the superior cervical ganglion on the right hand side, there is interruption of sympathetic input to the eye, therefore
the face is vasodilated, skin of face is dry, no sweat glands, and eye is constricted because the dilator pupillae is not innervated.

Where do the preganglionic nerve fibers originate? Where do they synapse? How do the postganglionic fibers travel to their final destination? What do sympathetics innervate in the head? What would be the symptoms of Horner’s Syndrome?
Describe the sympathetic innervation of organs of the thorax?
All the pre gang in T1 –T4!!! So this is a large lateral cell column, many neurons
So they come out from vent root to mixed, white rami, post gang from sympathetic chain and going to organ they innervate in thorax
Some from T1 go to superior cervical, synapse and come off
These are the thoracic splanchnics, meaning nerve fibers going to the thorax
Compare the actions of these in bronchial glands of the thorax?

1. Parasympathetic division of ANS
2. Sympathetic division of ANS
Compare the actions of these in the heart?

1. Parasympathetic division of ANS
2. Sympathetic division of ANS
These postganglionic fibers traveling to organs in the thorax are the thoracic splanchnics
All three ganglia originate in the lateral column
Vagus is parasympathetic to the heart and the ganglia is in the fat pads of the hearty
Vagus does all the parasympathetic to the thorax!!!
Describe the sympathetic innervation to the abdomen and pelvis?
Innervation of abdomen and pelvis involves:

1. splanchnic nerves
2. Preaortic ganglia
Preaortic ganglia occur in plexus that sorround the origins of the main branches of the abdominal aorta, and three ganglia fall under the preaortic ganglia. They are:
Celiac ganglion = Foregut
Superior mesenteric ganglion = Midgut
Inferior mesenteric ganglion = Hindgut
Abdoman and pelvis, the post are in ganglia which are in front of the aorta
The post gang fibers then travel with blood vessels
The foregut is at the beginning of the duodenum
Rectum is hindgut
Stomach is foregut

In the pelvis, we have the superior hypogastric plexus.


All the pre gang are from T5 –T9, Pass directly through the sympathetic chain go medial and come together to form the greater splanchnic nerve and supply
They travel with blood vessels of the celiac artery
The midgut has T10 –T11, they fuse to form the lesser splanchnic nerve, synapse in mesenteric ganglion….organ of midgut
T12 go to the artic renal so this is kidney
L1 –l2 go together inferior and these are the lumbar and supply hindgut…branches of inferior…
Pelvis originates in……superior of inferior hypogastric artery
T5 –T9 = FORE

L1 –L2 = HINDGUT…Some are sacral
The post ganglionic supplying the bladder are, sympathetic are in the superior or inferior hypogastric
Rectum are in the inferior mesenteric
Post for stomach arte in the celiac ganglion
Vasoconstriction in these visceral organs is sympathetic?
Smooth muscle contraction is parasympathetic
Lumbar sympathetic chain ganglion
1. Illustrate the role of chromaffin cells in the sympathetic division?

2. Describe the role of GVAs in the intestine if you have gas?
1. Pre gang synapse on the adrenal to chromafin cells, secrete epinephrine, caused by pre gang directly in adrenal medulla and chromaffin cells act as post ganglion and then the chromaffin release the neurotransmitters due to fight or flight.
Chromaffin cells stain with chroma.

2. Small intestine, you have gas, pain fibers from visceral organs travel with sympathetic the GVA in the small intestine the axons travel with the post gang sympathetic fiber and run through superior mesenteric or go to lesser splanchnic , enter spinal cord from t10 to t11 where its cell body is
GVAs travel travel back with the sympathetic for pain
GVA for Parasympathetic are for things you are not aware of that travel with it
Describe the parasympathetic nervous system and focus on these points:

1. What cranial nerves are involved?

2. Parasympathetic innervation in the thorax and abdomen

3. Location of preganglionic neurons in the pelvis

4. Location of postganglionic neurons
Superior salivatory ---greater petrosal goes to chorda tympani.
Chorda tympani is submandular
CN IX is otic ganglion
CN X is in dorsal motor nucleus of 10, vagus supplies all para for thorax, until you get to the END OF THE MIDGUT!!
Vagus , S2 –S4 are hindgut and pelvis, from the ventral primary rami! And are called pelvic splanchnics
The rectum, bladder, ovaries…..uterus…parasym originates in the spinal cord s2-s3, branch off and synapse in the wall of the organ, these are not SACRAL SPLANCHINC!!!!!! Para is PELVIC SPLANCHNIC!!! Sympa is SACRAL.
Vagus = peristalsis in stomach
Defecate, move feces, are caused by the pelvic splanchnics!!!


How do we get sympathetic to ventral surface of dermatome C2?
SYmpa to dermatome with your face?
Sympa to the heart?
Symap to the stomach?
Sympa to the rectum?