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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Both the autonomic and somatic (voluntary) nervous systems involve reflexes and connections to the CNS utilizing unipolar and multipolar sensory neurons, _______, and _____.
Interneurons

motor neurons
The autonomic system is often considered a motor system for control of ______________.
autonomic effectors
The effectors of the autonomic nervous system include, _____, _____, and the _____.
smooth muscle

glands

heart
The autonomic nervous system also utilizes senory inputs as part of _____ and independently as part of broader control mechanisms.
visceral reflexes
While the motor neuron in a somatic pathway travels directly to the skeletal muscle effector, in the autonomic nervous system there are _____ which synapse at an _____.
two motor neurons

autonomic ganglion
The neurotransmitter also may vary with the parasympathetic division mostly mostly using _____ at both pre and post ganglionic fibers, while the sympathetic division utilizes mostly norepinephrine at the post ganglionic fibers.
acetylcholine
The two autonomic divisions are ______ and _______.
Sympathetic and Parasympathetic
The parasympathetic division originates (has its CNS connection) in either the _____ or sacral portions of the ______.
Cranial

CNS
The Parasympathetic division utilizes _____ (remember III, VII, IX, X) or _____ (the pelvic splanchnic nerves).
Cranial nerves

sacral spinal nerves
The autonomic ganglia of the parasympathetic division are located on or near the ______ organ.
effetor
The ganglia of the parasympathetic division utilizes ______ as both the pre-ganglionic and the post-ganglionic neurotransmitter (we call that ______).
acetylcholine

cholinergic
The ___________ neurotransmitter is most important because this is the transmitter actually released as the effector organ and which stimulates its receptors.
post-ganglionic
The parasympathetic division has ______ which can mostly be described as producing the ______ responses, i.e. non-stress responses, of its effectors.
localized and specific effects

normal
The sympathetic division has its origin in the _____ portion of the spinal cord.
thoracolumbar
The autonomic ganglia of the sympathetic division are located in a chain of ganglia called the _____ located near the spinal cord.
lateral chain ganglia
There are also plexuses of the sympathetic division which allow ______ between different components of the divison.
multiple connections
The sympathetic division uses ____ at its autonomic ganglia, but mostly uses _____ at the effector organ adrenergic.
ACH

norepinephrine
The sympathetic division often exhibits a _____ rather than local effect.
general activation
The sympathetic division often acts as a _____ system.
stress response
The alliteration _____ is sometimes used to describe that way in which the sympathetic division becomes activated to mobilize the body's resources.
Fight or Flight
The term _____ refers to those receptors which respond to the transmitter acetylcholine.
cholinergic
______ receptors are mostly excitatory.
Alpha
The significance is that certain clinical drugs can be used to stimulate or inhibit one type or _____ receptor without affecting other types.
cholinergic
______ receptors are found at all autonomic ganglia, and at the neuromuscular junctions of skeletal muscles.
nicotinic
_____receptors are found at parasympathetic target organs and at certain sympathetic targets - the _____ (which produces copious secretion in thermoregulation to release heat), and blood vessels in skeletal muscles (which are dilated).
muscarinic

eccrine sweat glands
______ receptors come in two basic types and each has subtypes.
Adrenergic
_____ receptors are generally inhibitory, except those to the heart.
Beta
_____ receptors on the heart increase heart rate and force.
Beta
Some ______ receptors dilate blood vessels to the heart and lungs, and dilate the bronchi.
beta
Beta receptors inhibit the muscles and glands or the ______ tract.
GI
The ______ glands are only innervated by sympathetic fibers.
Sweat
The ____ gland are innervated by cholinergic fibers which cause them to secrete copiously for thermoregulation.
eccrine
The _____ glands secrete a viscous fluid containing pheromones in response to stress and sexual arouse. These are controlled by adrenergic fibers. Blood vessels to the sweat are adrenergic and dilate in response to sympathetic stimulation.
apocrine
Most ______ vessels are innervated by sympathetic fibers only.
blood
Most blood vessels are innervated by sympathetic fibers only. The exception is vessels to the _____ which are dilated by parasympathetic stimulation.
genitalia
Mostly the _______ stimulation causes vasoconstriction to raise blood pressure, but to the vessels of the skeletal muscles, heart, and lungs vasodilation occurs as part of the need for more blood and oxygen during "Fight or Flight".
sympathetic
Beta receptors are in effect used as anti-bronchitis drugs which are _____.
sympathomimetic
The alpha receptors cause _____ of most blood vessels to raise the blood pressure, dilation of the pupils of the eyes, constriction of sphincters in the GI tract as part of its reduced function with sympathetic stimulation.
vasoconstriction
There are two types of cholinergic receptors, classified according to whether they are stimulated by the drug ______ or by the drug _____.
nicotine

muscarine