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23 Cards in this Set

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what is automated analysis?
mechanical or electrical control of a process that's repetitive,to minimize error and increase efficiency.
what is continuous flow?
-Continuous pumping of reagents into 1 rxn chamber;
-Specimens enter segmented flow at intervals.
How do automated analyzers meter out sample/reagent?
with tubes of various diameters.
what is contained in the stream?
-Sample
-Reagent
-Bubbles
-Water wash between segments.
What can interfere with analyte msmt, and how is it removed?
Protein - by dialysis.
-How many components are in a continuous flow auto analyzer?
-What are they?
Seven.
1) Sampler
2) Proportioning pump
3) Manifold
4) Dialyzer
5) Heating bath
6) Colorimeter
7) Recorder
What does a sampler do?
aspirates samples, standards, and wash solutions in a timed sequence.
what are the parts of a sampler?
Cam, motor to turn the cam.
Sample/wash aspirator.
What is the heart of the system?
Proportioning pump to move sample/reagent/air
what does the manifold do?
proportions, mixes, carries fluid through analysis by pump action.
what is the dialyzer for?
removing protein and interfering substances.
what factors influence dialysis?
-Time, Temp, Membrane type and Membrane surface. ALL CONSTANT.

-Concentration - the only variable.
How is the heating bath constructed,and why?
So that solution flows from bottom up - gives time delay for ample color development.
What happens to the stream before color measurment?
DEBUBBLING.
how does sample go through the colorimeter?
through a flow cell.
what 4 components are in the optical colorimeter for auto analysis?
1. Tungsten lamp
2. Interference FILTER
3. 2 photocells - double beam in space.
4. Null balance circuit.
what type of recorder is used?
a pen that draws a graph corresponding to color measurement. will reflect bubbles if present!
what other photodetectors could be used?
-Flame photometer
-Fluorometer
what is DISCRETE ANALYSIS?
chemistry analysis of samples SEPERATED BY PHYSICAL BARRIERS.
what is commonly used to seperate the samples?
plastic envelopes with reagents in them.
what is the Ektachem currently called?
the Vitros
what type of analysis does the Vitros use?
-Dry slide technology with ion selective electrodes.
what are the 4 key concepts re: the vitros?
-Liquid free(dryslide) technol.
-Film slide
-Reflectance spectrophotometry for opaque slides/samples
-Air displacement sampling.