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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
True or False: Autocoids are a group of compounds that act as hormones on neighboring cells
FALSE, autocoids are formed by the tissues they act on (they are LOCAL hormones)
What are 2 bioactive amines?
histamine and serotonin
what are 2 endogenous peptides?
angiotensin and neuropeptide
what are 2 arachidionic acid metabolites?
PGs and leukotrienes
what is 1 cytokine?
which is NOT an autocoid:
arachidionic acid metabolite
bioactive amine
endogenous peptide
what type of autocoid is a chemical mediator for a wide variety of responses including allergic reactions, inflammatory reactions, and gastric acid secretions?
What autocoid is a component of venoms and stinging secretions?
where are histmines found in the body (in high concentrations)?
lungs, skins, and gastrointestinal tract
histamine is NOT bound to:
-calcium in motor endplate cells
-heparin in tissue mast cells
-basophils in blood
-enterochromaffin-like cells in fundus
of the stomach
calcium in motor endplate cells
when are histamines released?
when an allergen is encountered, the allergen signals the mast cell to release histamine
Name 3 types of tissue release for histamines.
-mechanical (destruction of cells)
-chemical (histamine liberators-drugs
and foreign proteins)
-immunological (allergy and anaphylaxis)
what are the therapeutic indications of histamines?
what kind of drugs are these:
diphenhydramine (benadryl)
promethazine (phenergan)
chlorpehniramine (chlortrimeton)
these are histamine receptor antagonists
what are some new generation histamine antagonist drugs that are non-sedating and longer acting?
terfenadine (seldane)-cardiac side
fexofenadine (allegra)
astemizole (hismanal)
loratide (claritin)
what are the effects of histamine antagonists?
sedation, anticholinergic effects like dry mouth, local anesthetic properties (block sodium channels)
what are the side effects of histamine antagonists?
sedation, headache, visual disturbance, dry mouth, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation
what are the therapeutic uses of histamine antagonists?
allergies due to H1 receptor effects, prevention of motion sickness and emesis, sedation (sleep aids), topically as a local anesthetic
what are the pharmacokinetics of histamine antagonists?
active orally and parentally
duration of 3-4 hrs for the old drugs
duration of 12-24 hrs for new drugs
metabolized by the liver
excreted in the urine
what are some examples of drugs that reduce both basal and food stimulated gastric acid secretion and what category are they in (H1 or H2)??
H2 antagonists:
cimetidine (tagamet)
ranitidine (zantac)
famotidine (pepcid)
nizatidine (axid)
True of False: Prostaglandins (PGs) are divided into the A, B, F, and T series?
FALSE, they are divided into the E,F, D, and I series
what type of autocoids are generated "de novo" from membrane phospholipids and may play an important role in the inflammatory reaction?
what is the mechanism of binding for prostaglandins?
they bind to specific cell surface receptors-EP, FP, IP, and DP
True or False: giving prostaglandins to a women who is pregant will cause her to go into labor?
what are the pharmocolgical actions of prostaglandins?
relax vascular smooth muscle, relax bronchial smooth muscle, contract uterine smooth muscle in females, decrease gastric acid secretion, decrease blood pressure, inhibit platelet aggregation, increase body temp., inhibit the release of norepinephrine from sympathetic nerves
True or False: prostaglandins have a short duration of action?
what are the therapeutic uses of prostaglandins?
therapeutic abortion, gastric cytoprotection (prevention of ulcers), impotence
which autocoid is derived from the amino acid tryptophan?
what are the pharmacological actions of serotonin?
increaes motility, mixture of vascular constriction and dilation, causes platelet aggregation, stimulates nociceptive sensory nerve endings
which serotonin agonist is used for the tx of anxiety?
buspirone (buspar)
which serotonin agonist is used in the tx of acute migraine and cluster headache attacks, and has side effects of dizziness, neck pain, and chest discomfort
sumatriptan (imitrex)
as an O.T., what do I need to conscious about when I have a pt. who is taking serotonin agonists?
dizziness, muscle weakness, and neck pain
what serotonin antagonist is used in the tx of migraine?
methysergide (sansert)
what serotonin antagonist is used in chemotherapy-induced emesis?
ondansetron (zofran)
what are the pharmacological actions of histamines in the C.V.S.?
decreased blood pressure, increased heart rate, increased permeability (edema), decreased cardiac output, increased contractility and pacemaker rate
what are the pharmocological actions of histamines in smooth muscles?
bronchoconstriction and contraction of uterus
what are the pharmocological actions of histamines in the nervous system?
urticaria, pain and itching, presynaptic modulation of release
what are the pharmocological actions of histamines in glands?
stimulation of gastric acid secretion in G.I.T., stimulation of bronchial and salivary glands