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79 Cards in this Set

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Speechreading aging
more susceptible to backward masking, visual noise can cause forget what read, poor vision/depth percep, inability to deal w/ complexity, working mem. decline
Backward masking speechreading
signal and noise-noise drowns out part of the signal-if signal is followed closely by noise-noise drowns signal
Working memory decline speechreading
easier distracted also less ability to interpret what is read
Analytic speechreading
beginning at the very basic level w/ CV combinations-focus on detection and discrim
Synthetic
A global approach-focus on finding similarity and general meaning associated with topics
factors imporatant to speechreading
limited facial distractions, appropriate lips move, rate of spech, non-verbals, distance from speaker, angle of speaker, dialects spoken, anatomic diff.
Viseme
A group of phonemes that look alike when spoken-phonemes are the spoken component while visemes are only the visual component
Homophenes
words that look alike when spoken-even though they soud different.
4 visually contrastive visemes
Bilabials, rounded labials, labiodentals, nonlabials (alveolars, liguadentals, palatals, velars)
Place to start w/ speechreading
overlearned speech, list of words around a topic, simple stories, guess who, cloquial sent. games/quizzes around common phrases
Hard speechreading activities
Find the synonym, change topic in conversation
Auditory training what
teaching listener to get max benefit from the audtiory cues they are give3n
Auditory training include
detection, discrim, id, comp
Bottom up Auditory training
lowest CV level, California consonant test, modified rhyme test
California Consonant test
Set of 4 words, focus on final consonants, closed set test
Modified rhyme test
both initial and final consonant are rep, clients w/ initial consonant prob have low WRS
Top down auditory training
use of conversational speech, focus on difference bt listening and hearing, use contextual cues to get meaning of conversation
Training for listening
eye contact, focused attn, understanding main points, attend to non-verbals
modify diff auditory training
changing stimuli, changing condition (open/closed set, background), changing non verbals, changing responses(discrim/comp)
Modified rhyme test
both initial and final consonant are rep, clients w/ initial consonant prob have low WRS
Top down auditory training
use of conversational speech, focus on difference bt listening and hearing, use contextual cues to get meaning of conversation
Training for listening
eye contact, focused attn, understanding main points, attend to non-verbals
modify diff auditory training
changing stimuli, changing condition (open/closed set, background), changing non verbals, changing responses(discrim/comp)
Formants
band of frequencies that are resonated/boosted in energy by the vocal tract
Acoustic cues for vowels
Vowels have specific formants that diff them from other vowels
Acoustic cues for place
Formant transitions, burst, VOT
Acoustic cues for fricatives
high energy, cont., aperiodic energy, turbulence, range of freq
manner and voicing deter
by length of vowel
Categorical perception
sharp boundaries called formant transitions that dtermine VOT-help listener determine diff bt consonants that have other similar characters-ie voiced v. non-voiced
Test for speech percep
Nonsense syllables, mono syllables, simple sentences, complex sentences
Noise/distortion
speech spectrum, multitalker babble, one competing speaker
Speech Spectrum
500-4000Hz noise used in background for speech percep-easiest to id within because meaningless and steady
Multi-talker babble
noised used for speech percep-more difficult because has characteristics of speech, but is still meaningless
One competing speaker
Noise used for speech percep-most difficult because it's a meaningful distractor
4 types of comm strategies
repair strategies, anticipatory strategies, assertivness training, environmental controls
environment controls
turn off noise, acoustic tiles, carpet/rugs, reduce dist in furn, soft furn, reduce visual distract, avoid backlightin
anticipatory strategies
predict probs, anticipate topics, use non-verbals, keep informed, modify environment
Talking to HI
face person (3-6 ft, same level), get attn, don't cover mouth, speak slowly and articulate, recognize potential sick/tired, don't talk from another room
repair strategies
ask for slower rate, ask for clarification (repeat what heard), ask for repetition, ask for rephrasing, ask to shorten, ask for key words, confirm
assertiveness training
teaches HI to take responsibilty for facilitating comm. Taking control of environ, using anticipatory and repair strategies
connected discourse tracking
speech tracking-provide practice using repair strategies-request rephrase by a clinician so they can repeat back-also helps assertive
connected discourse tracking therapy
read aloud to person-repeat back what heard-maybe in presence of background noise-use repair strategies to get gist
Fluent conversation
limited filler, app. pausing, intonation, stress, acknow, app. response, limited number of breakdown, app use of repair, stay on topic
Parts of HA
microphone, amp, receiver, power source
Output limiter
sets the level that hearing aid will never rise above
Compression
picks a level above which it changes how it amp. cont to amp, but not at the same rate for sounds that are louder, comp begins at kne
Recruitment
abnormal growth in loudness of sound
Directional microphone
allows you tot change direction of what enters ha-1 to hear all around-1 to hear conversation in background noise
noise supression
digital hearing aids-listens to sounds in environment-steady sounds supressed
telecoil
wire coil w/ current comes in contact w/ another wire coil w/ current it transfers the signal-ie coil picks up coil in phone
feedback
occurs when a sound that has been amp goes back into the mic and gets amp again-digital eliminates
HA battery
replace about every 2 wks-smaller 50-60hrs, some aids will beed 5 min b4 batt needs changing, peel sticker off to remember date to replace, batt will last longer w/ less advan feat used
Telecoil used w/
ALD loop around neck that pics up infrared signal at movies, transfers sound into telecoil
ext. controls ha
Switch-M-mic, T-telecoil, O-off, program switch
Earmolds
Behind the ear, In the ear, in the canal, completely in the canal
Completely in canal
cosmetically appealing, natural funneling occurs, but needs freq repair
Behind the ear
FM boot that can pick up FM signals
Fitting a HA
degress of loss, how much do they feel disabled, degree of motivation, loudness discomfort
Two HA
Localize sound, extra 3-5db of gain, understand speech in noise better, avoid auditory deprivation
Electroacoustic
Gain, freq response, Output SPL, harmonic distortion, equivalent input noise
SLP need to do HA
change batt, cleaning and caring, using wax pick, no excessive heat, ear molds can be washed w/ warm water
Upward Spread of Masking
low pictch sound masks a high pitch sound-can occur w/ ha
Assess for adult client
Med info, History of Hearing prob, type of hearing prob, ha helpful
Med info
Accident, meds, congenital, illnesses
Hearing prob history
onset-sudden/gradual, how long, anything that may have caused
What type of hearing prob.
kind of environ most a prob, types of sounds are most diff.
HA helpful
what is not helpful, what probs have you had
What's not in file
personal goals, state of mind, level of motivation, personality, effective non-verbals, impact hearing loss has had
Assessment tools of Hearing loss
Hearing handicap scale, McCarthy alpiner scale of hearing handicap, hearing problem inventory, hearing handicap inventory for the elderly
Inventory-disadvant/advant
people may lie, don't know of issues that surround hl, but it's quick and easy to use
comm. handicap
does it mess up relations, interfere w/ work, prevent from being independent
comm. disability
measure the disadvantage related to auditory activities of daily living what can't they do
topic related skills
can stay on topic, can change topic, topic selection, smooth transitions
turn taking prob
freq interuptions,not allowing other turns, not enough non-verbals, inappr. pausing
lexical choice
vocab choice, word length, slang, ambiguous words
stylistic variance
adaptions for listener-shorten story, slow down speech, change tone for diff listener
Paralinguistics
intonation, stress, tone, timing-HI person is good at because of previous exp, low freq, high intensity
Assess conversational fluency
measure mean length of turn, number of turn, repair?, types of repairs
Comm. diff w/ HL
background noise, comm. w/ a group, dialects, modern movies