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995 Cards in this Set

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(T/F) Axons have a nucleus, ER, golgi apparatus, or ribosomes.
FALSE; axons don't have a nucleus, ER, golgi apparatus, or ribosomes.
Why do axons have an abundant amnt of microtubules and actin filaments?
Because these are essential for axonal transport (that is microtubules) and cytoskeletal structure (that is actin filaments), respectively.
Microtubules are essential for axonal transport.
TRUE
Microfilaments are essential for cytoskeletal structure.
TRUE
A portion of eukaryotic mRNA has the following base sequence: 5'-ACAUCUAUGCCACGA-3'. What could result from a mutation that changes the underlying base to A?
Since we don't know the reading frame, its possible that the AUG sequence in the original length of mRNA served as a start signal, in which case changing the U would result in failure to initiate translation. Without knowing the reading frame, we cannot rule out the fact that this change will reuslt in a stop codon (UAA).
What are the start codons?
AUG
What are the stop codons?
UAA, UGA, UAG
Aproteins destined to be secreted into the RER lumen have a specila sequence of AA's aat their _____ terminus. This sequence is recognized by what?
Amino; this sequence is recognized by the SRP which binds to a receptor on the RER, attaching ribosome and the nascent polypeptide to the ER membrane.
How are the phosphate for translation allotted?
1P for intiaiton; 2P for each AA to be added to the chain; and 2P required for chain formation (#1 to carry the AA to the ribsoome; #2 to translocated)
For 100aa chain, how many ATP total?
1+2(100)+2(99)=399 ATP total
70s ribosomes: what is the makup?
30S (light unit) and 50S (heavy unit)
bacillus
rod-shaped
Metaphase requires what?
metaphase requires microtubules for sister chromatid separation.
Amoeboid motility and contractile processes require what?
amoeboid motility and contractile processes (such as cytokinesis) requires microfilaments
TIP: When see "recombination", make sure they are referring to meiosis.
#
Microtubules are required for what?
intraceullular organelle movement and spindle formation;
Microfilaments are requered for what?
amoboid movement
What are the characteristics of eukaryotic flagella?
they are cytoplasmic extensions w/ a 9+2 arrangement of microtubules; ATP hydrolysis is required for their movement; and similar in structure to cilia
Prokaryotes and eukaryotic flagella are different from each other in that…
prokaryotic flagellar are formed from chians of protein called flagellin, and are attached to the cell surface (as opposed to being cytoplasmic extensions)
When does coevolution occur?
when the characteristics of one species influences the evolution of another species; ie. One species makes a virus less virulent.
Competition results when organisms from the same species overlap in their utilization of insufficient resources.
TRUE
(T/F) Better surviving a diseases is not "outcompeting" b/c no resources are being competed over.
TRUE
(T/F) Membrane's impermeability to Na is essential to the RMP.
TRUE
(T/F) Aps begin at the dendritic spine.
FALSE; Aps begin at the axon hillock… Dendritic spine is where the NT has its effect.
What are the solutes that are responsible for the osmotic gradients in the renal medulla?
urea and NaCl
If H+ is not secreted into urine such as when no carbonic anhyydrase is present, then what happens?
It will remain in the plasma, thereby decreasing plasma pH at the same time that uring pH increases.
If H+ is not secreted into urine such as when no carbonic anhyydrase is present, then what happens?
~90% of serum fluid to enter Bowman's capsuile; Filtrate is composed of water and small solutes such as salts, nitrogenous wastes, glucose, aa's, and …
What is the proximal tubule permeable to?
salts, urea, and water
Proximal tubule: substances actively transporte out of the tubule or reabsorbed include glucose, AA's, and Na+; H2O passsively follows.
True.
What is the length of the myosin which doesn't change during muscle contraction.
The A band.
What is that band that is the region of actin that doesn't overlap with myosin.
I band; during contraction, this distance decreases as the filaments slide past each other.
What is the sarcomere length defined by.
The distance btw z lines; it is the shortening of this unit which determines muscle contraction.
What must bund to the ribosome before translation can occur?
tRNA
During oxidative phosphorylation, the final acceptor electron acceptor from ____ is ___.
During oxidative phosphorylation, the final acceptor electron acceptor from NADH is O2.
During fermentation, what is the final acceptor?
an organic compound
CO2 dissolved in plasma decreased the pH through conversion to what?
carbonic acid.
# During oxidative phosphorylation, the final acceptor electron accepotr from NADH is O2.
#
# During fermentation the final acceptor is an organic compound
#
# Carbon dioxide dissolved in plasma decreased the pH through conversion to carbonic acid.
#
# Plasmids are extrachromosomal circular DNA molecules.
#
# Organelles are membrane bound cellular components present only in eukaryotes.
#
# dsDNA is not produced thru transcript and translation, its done so thru replication.
#
# Nuclear membrane disappears in metaphase, after the visible condensation of the chromosomes in prophase.
#
# Erythrocytes must be continually replenished by stem cells in the marrow.
#
# Mitosis can occur in haploid cells unlike meiosis, which can occur in diploid cells.
#
# Replication of organelle DNA occurs in G1, nculear DNA is S phase.
#
# Many enzymes are thermolabile, that is, they don't function at higher temperatures even within the normal physiological range.
#
# Antibodies may coat a foreign particle so that it is taken up by phagocyte cells. Antibodies serve as markers causing phagocytic cells to engluf and desotry foreign particles or cells.
#
# The iris adapt to light in a fraction of a second (very quick!)
#
# Rods are resposnbiel for dark vision (inceased sensitivity) and black/white vision.
#
# Cones are resposnible for visual acuity and color vision.
#
# Photoreceptor has open Na channels in resting state.
#
# Transudction of lifht energy occurs in the retina where photoreceptors respond to incident light by decreasing their steady release of NT.
#
# hematocrit = red blood cells
#
# as velocity decrease, viscosity increases
#
# In the disorder diabetes inspidus, ADH secretion is secerely deficient and the result is decreased solute concentration in the urine. ADH causes water to be reabsorbed from the urine. Without it, the urine is excessively dilute.
#
# What makes ATP a particularly good energy carrier is that it has an intermediate trans for potential. This allows high energy phosphate carriers like creatine phosphate to drive the synthesis of ATP from ADP + Pi by transferring their phosphate group to ADP.
#
# ATP's hydrolysis doesn't release the largest amnt of energy of any molecule in the body. Creatine phosphate's fere energy of hydrolysis is -10.3kcal/mol compared to ATP's 7.3kcal/mol.
#
# Creatine phosphate is a high energy buffer b/c it maintains the level of available high energy phosphates. During intense muscule exertions, creatine phosphate replenishes the muscle's ATP by transfering its phosphat grp to ADP.
#
# In order to spontaneous transfer its phosphate grp to ADP, creatine phosphate's free energy of hydrolysis must be more negative than ATPs.
#
# Ca2+ binds to troponin which causes a conformation change that allows tropomyosin to shifts its position, exposing the myosin binding site on actin.
#
# Mg2+ is required for myosin's ATPase function to be effective.
#
# ATP binds to the myosin heads.
#
# Women treated over a long period of time with relatively large doses of estrogen don't ovulate. This is probably due to inhibition of gonadotropin secretion by estrogen.
#
# Estrogen acts at the hypothalamic and pituitary leads to inhibit the secretion of GnRH from the hypothalamus & FSH and LH from anterior pitutitary. This is a class negative feedback loop.
#
# The preovulatory LH surge is essential for ovulation.
#
# Preovulatory decline of FSH is due to the increasing oncentration of estradiol. Estrogen inhibits FSH by negative feedback.
#
# In the absence of pregnancy, menstruation normally occurs. This is due to the decline of progesterone and estradiol, 2 hormones required for maintenance of endometrium.
#
# Progesterone and estradiol are two hormones that are required for maintenance of endometrium.
#
# Ovarrian follicle produces estradiol.
#
# Corpus luteum and placenta produce both estrdiol and progesterone.
#
# Adrenal medula produces catecholamines (epi and norepi).
#
# FSH and LH are prduced in anterior pituitary.
#
# {psteropr [ituitary: ADH and oxytocin
#
# Pineal gland: melatonin (sleep cycles)
#
What does Lac+ signify?
Denotes a bacterium which can metabolize lactose normally; it can grow in a medium which contains lactose as its primary energy source.
# Auxotrophs have a mutation that prevent them from growing on minimal media (requires an auxiliary trophic substance… trophic means relating to nutrition).
#
# Prototrophs: wildtype; can grow on minimal media ("proto" means 1st in time).
#
# hetertrophs: organism which grows using energy derived from another organism's metabolism.
#
# plants are generaly autotrophs while animals are hetertrophs; bacteria can be either.
#
# Chemotrophs: derive their energy from an inorganic carbon source (a chemical source)
#
# Penicillin blocks the last step in bacterial peptidoglycan cell wall function, disrupting cell wall formation.
#
# Tumor intiators cause mutations, or changes in the DNA sequence of a cell.
#
# Cancer cell may or may not lose their ability to hormonal control (ie: breast cancer which is treated with hormonal therapy).
#
# Only mutations in DNA cause permanent change that can be passed down to daughter cells.
#
# Middle ear is composed of the ossicles.
#
# Inner ear is the site where the sound wave becomes a traveling wave.
#
# Hair cells transduce the impulse in the traveling wave into a nerve impulse.
#
# Low frequencies cause the most vibration at the apical end, farthest form the eardrum.
#
# Hair cells in different locations along the basilar membrane resord sound of different frequencies.
#
# Damage to the tympanic membrane would cause conduction deafness and hearing loss would be uniform over all frequencies.
#
# Process of translating a sound wave to a nerve imulse: 1) movememnt of the auditory ossicles (which are in the iddle ear); 2) Pressure changes of the inner ear caused by ossicle movement; 3) displacement of the basilar membrane caused by pressure changes of the innear ear; 4) movement of hair cells that are attached to the basilar membrane.
#
# Cerebral cortex is composed of nerve cell bodies, and appears grey. Proccesses higher learning such as speech, sound, sight, learning, etc… and is the seat of consciousness.
#
# Cerebellum: site of coordination of movement and balance
#
# Hypothalamus: site of regulation of homeostasis.
#
# Cerebral white matter is composed of myelinated axons (it is the lipid rich myelin which makes it white). Not considered processesing center.
#
# Cerebral white matter is area of complex intertwingin pathways leading from one processing center to another (ie. From cerebellum to cortex).
#
# Myelin, which consists of Schwann cell membranes, prevents an AP from occuring within a segment of an axon. As a result, the AP must leap from one node of Ranvier to the next (no myelin at the nodes; depol can occur at nodes)
#
# Can't use Nernst equation for RMP it blocks K channels b/c Na/K ATPase plays large factor.
#
# Lymphastic system has no role in cicurlation of RBCs.
#
# RBCs don't escape blood vessels b/c they are large and lack the amoeboid motility of white blood cells.
#
# Lymphastic system: allows for white blood cells to return to blood circulation; maintains protein concentration in the blood by returning leaked proteins from institium to the blood circulation; transports fats from digestive tract in the circulatory system in the form of chylomicrons.
#
# Bone marrow in the site of synthesis of all cells of the blood stream.
#
# BP is much higher than interstitial fluid volume, and the concentration of protein is also higher in the blood => proteins ltend to leak out of blood vessels and cannot diffuse back in.
#
# In the case of liver diseases or protein deficiency, the concentration of plasma proteins (ie. Albumin_ falls and edema results (think about this!)
#
# Thoracic duct drains the entire left side of the body.
#
# Thoracic duct drains the entire left side of the body.
#
# Lymphatic capillaries are the starting point of lymph return to the blood.
#
# Right thoracic duct drains only the right shoulder area and right side of the heat.
#
# Lymphatic capillaries are more permeable. They are meant to uptake proteins, whereas blood capillaries were designed to retain proteins.
#
# Lympho nodes are the pace where antigen sampling and the early stages of the immune response occur.
#
# Arg-: lacks enzymes to synthesize argineine; Lac-: dindicates a bacterium which can't grow in a media which contains lactose, usu b/c it lacks the enzyme lactase.
#
# thiol: -SH
#
# acetylene is when C is triple bonded to another C
#
# NH4+ is electrophilic b/c its positively charged.
#
# n-Hexan & 2-methyl pentane are isomer: small magnitude of deltaH_carb of 2methylpentane is consistent with a higher degree of branching.
#
# dbl bond: carbon atoms are sp^2 hybridized and have 3 equivalent orbitals and a fourth unhybridized p orbiatl.
#
# The heat of hydrogenation is defined as the amnt of heat released upon addition of H2 across a dbl bond.
#
# Saponificatoin of the ester occurs with NaOH and isolation of the free acids are achieved using a mineral acid such as HCl.
#
# Absorption at 1735 cm^-1 is characteristic of an ester group.
#
# Aldol rxns are fast and occur in either acidic or basic media. Therefore, aldehydes added to dilute acid will undergo aldol condensation forming a hydroxylated aldehyde. (see notes)
#
# Enantiomers have identical physical properties ecept for the direction in which they rotate plane polarized light => enantiomers would have same pI values.
#
# Benedict's test for reducing sugars works like this: an oxidized copper reagent is reduced bya surgar's aldehyde or ketone, and the aldehyde or ketone is oxidized in the process. NEGATIVE for carboxylic acids; POSITIVE for aldehydes/ketone.
#
# Meso cmpds are achiral, even though they have chiral centers; this is b/c of their internal plane of symmetry.
#
# A meso cmpd must have an even # greater or equal to 2 chiral centers.
#
# D, L, alpha, beta rae all naturally occuring sugars. Alpha and beta forms are said to be anomers of each other. Refer to configuration of carbon #1, the anomeric carbon when subar is in the turanes or pyranose (ring) form.
#
# Protonate propanoic acid using acid to allow the sodium salt to be remoced from the solution before spectroscopy.
#
# Compounds to acids, alcohols aren't acidic enoguh to bind signimficant amount of Na+ compared to acids.
#
# C=O 1700 cm^-1; C-OH 3000cm^-1
#
# Larger k means rxn is less reversible.
#
# Amides: carboxylic acid & amine; more stable than esters.
#
# Amides are more stable than carboxylic acids => amide bonds don't easily undergo hydrolysis.
#
# Most biologically active sugars have the D configuration; D config: last chiral carbon has the same configuration as D-glyceraldehyde.
#
# Few examples of biologically active L sugars (rare): L-galactose: constitutent of some polysaccharide structures; L-arabinase: a pentose is an important part of cells walls and plant glycoproteins.
#
# If a rxn is not stereospecific, will get two forms of the enantiomer. If the rxn is sterospecific, only one enantiomer will be formed => optically active molecule.
#
# Phosphofruktokinase catalyzes the comitted step in glycolysis so if it is inhibited, it will in turn inhibit glycolysis.
#
# A high fructose-6-phosphate concentration will leak to increase phosphofructokinase activity and enhanced glycolysis so there will be more ATP ==> increased ATP/AMP ratio.
#
# syncytia: immune impaired cells.
#
What is the net effect of viral glycoproteins expressed on the surface of HIV infected T cells fused with CD4 receptors on healthy cells forming a nonfunctional cell mass (syncytia formation) ?
Net result is an effective depltion of T cell activity; therefore the following would support this: the glycoproteins of the virus bind almost irrevsibly to CD4 receptor molecules in vitro.
# B cells are antibody producing components of the immune system.
#
# Immune system refers to a group of nonspecific and specific defense mechanisms mediaetd by specialized cells, such as B cells, T cells, and macrophages that travel through the body via the circulatory system.
#
# Centrioles: cylindrical strucutres whose role, if any, in animal cell mitosis is unclear to date.
#
# Lysosomes: respsonsible for the disgtion of various cellular and extracellular metabolites as well as the degradation of unwanted toxins.
#
# Macrophages: phagocytic monuclear white cells that serve accesosry roles in cellular immunity; they are NOT invovled in antibody production.
#
# Cis/trans arrangement of substitutents around a dbl bond is known as geometric isomerism, and have different physical properties attributed to a difference in their dipole moments and symemtry.
#
# HOT BASIC POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE: nonterminal alkenes will be oxidatively cleaved to form two molecules of carboxylic acids.
#
# Diols are created with alkenes treated with cold dilute potassium permanganate.
#
# Vinylic cation: an intermediate in which the positive charge id adjacent to a double bond.
#
# Technique that can be used in helping an epidemiologist determine that the infectious agent was bacterial or viral: can hybridize the infection agent w/ radiolabeled probes specific for the genes encoding viral structual proteins; only viral genes will hybridize.
#
# Bacteria hav ea signle circular chromosome located in a region of the cell known as the nucleoid.
#
# Prokaryotic ribosomes are structurally different from eukaryotic ribosomes, and this difference is often exploited in the development of effective antibodies.
#
# To test whether straing were effected by antibiotics, the experimeneter needed to use a medium that the strains could definitely grow on in the absence of antibiotics.
#
# Calcitonin lowers blood Ca2+ by promoting the incorporation of Ca2+ into bone.
#
# Parathyrodi hormone (PTH) increases blood ca2+ conc by promoting its removal from bone and its release into the blood stream. It also converts vitamind D3 into its active form, which stimulates the absorption of Ca2+ in the intestines.
#
# PTH converts vitamind D3 into its active form, which stimulates the absorption of Ca2+ in the intestines.
#
# Prolactin: hormone; synthesized by anterior pituitary gland; stimulates the secretion of milk from female mammary glands.
#
# ACTH: secreted by anterior pituitary; stimulates the production of hormones from the adrenal cortex.
#
# T4 (thyroxin) is a thyroid hormone involved in regulating metabolism.
#
# Pulmonary arteries deliver the blood to the capillary beds surrounding the alveli, which is where gas exchange occurs: CO2 is traded for O2.
#
# 3 primary germ layers which arise during the gastrulation stage of embryonic development: endoderm, mesoderm, ectoderm.
#
# Endoderm: innermost layer of cells from which the following strcutres aris: lining of digestive tract, respiratory tract, liver, thyroid, pancreas, bladder.
#
# Mesoderm: middle layer of cells give rise to skeletal muscle, dermis, bone, blood, gonads, kidneys, circulatory system.
#
# Ectoderm: gives rise to nail, hair, outer layer of skin, lens of eye, pitutiary gland, lining of mouse and nose, nervous tissue, adrenal medulla.
#
# Someone with Rh+ is ok with getting Rh+ blood (since body won't make antibodies to it).
#
# Ca2_ ions bind to troponin causing a conformational change within the sarcomere that causes the tropomyosin strands to shift and expose themyosin binding sites on actin => myosin binds to actin and the sarcomere contracts.
#
# Permanent actin-myosin crossbridges occur only in the absence of ATP and leads to the development of rigor mortis.
#
# Exocytosis is not a passive process and so requires ATP =?> release of Ach via exocytosis requires ATP (abundance of mitochondria in the nerve terminal supply the ATP).
#
# Not all eukaryotic cells contain mitochondria: red blood cells lack mitochondria.
#
# Neurons are aerobinc cells does require the presence of mitochondria.
#
# Diffusion is a passive process => ATP is not required.
#
# If a student's receptors for sensation of "hot" pain had severed, then the student would have felt no pain and his hand would have remained on the hot plate.
#
# Though the sensation of pain is also conveyed to the sensory cortex via a different pathway, this pathway also begins w/ the stimulation of the hot pain receptors in the skin. So if the receptors were severed , the message would not be sent to the brain by this route.
#
# Sensation of pain is the result of an impulse being transmitted to the brain's sensory neuron. If one of these pathways were severed at any point, the impulse wouldn't be sent to the brain, and the sensation of pain would not be felt.
#
# Different in reaction time corresponds to two factors: 1) distance the impulse must travel; 2) # of synapses the impulse must cross
#
# Withdrawl reflex in response to intense heat by passes the sensory area of the brain synapsing directly in the spiral chord.
#
# Sensation of pain is transmitted more slowly to the sensory cortex to a morotor neuron.
#
# Crossed exterior reflex: concomittant extension of the opposite limb.
#
#Chorination of butane results in formation of 1-chlorobutane and 2-chlorobutane since butane posses two types of hydrogen that can be substituted. (Tertiary is most reactive though so 2 chlorobutane is major product).
#
# Rxn that occurs thorugh a free radical intermediate will form a racemic mixture b/c (halogen) an add to either side of the molecule.
#
# Eukaryotic cells contain genes known as protooncognes which normally code for proteins involved in the regulation of growth. If any of these protooncognese become transpformed into an oncogene, then that cell is said to be tumorigenic.
#
# Tumorigenic cell: one that gives rise to a tumor.
#
# Tumor cells don't obey rules of normal cell growth and divide indefnitely.
#
# Second messenger system typically involve G proteins and cyclic AMP.
#
# Promoter is a region of DNA involved in the binding of RNA polymerase to intiate transcription. Promoter region is located approx 10-35 base pairs before the 1st coding base of the gene. The strength of the rpomoter describes the frequency at which RNA polymerase intiates trasncription and appears to be related to the closeness with which its sequence conform to the ideal consensus sequence.
# Strong promoter increases the frequency with whihch RNA polyermase binds to a region and transcribes the gene.
#
# Immunization with a hormone extract will not cause an infection. Viruses and Bacteria cause infections.
#
# RIA (radioimmunoassay): technique use for measuirng hormone concentration; as [unlabled hormone] increase in sampe, % of antibody bound radiolableed hormone decreases.
#
# During typical measurement, FSH stimultes the maturation of an ovarian follicle during a typical menstrual cycle.
#
# During pregnancy, mesntural cycle is inhibited b/c progesterone which is secreted by corpus luteum during the 1st trimester of pregnancy and secreted by placenta during remainder of pregnancy, inhibits FSH secretion ==> [FSH] very low during preganncy.
#
# Bohr effect: term used to describe hemoglobulins decrease in O2 affinity at high plasma concentration of CO2 at low pH.
#
# Amino acid is subjected to electrophoresis @ pH 8.5 and is observed to migrate to the anode. The isoelectric point of the amino acid is less than 8.5. Amino acid is negatively charge (negative on carbonyl group and neurtral NH3); inorder to make it into a switterion, need to protonate NH2 => NH3
#
# In males, release of LH and FSH is relatively constant b/c they stimulate two continuous processes: 1) testosterone synthesis; 2) spermatogenesis.
#
# In females, LH & FSH are released in a cyclic fashion. Prior to ovulation, FSH and LH secretion continuously increase.
#
# FSH: stimulates follicle development.
#
# LH: stimulates the development of the corpus luteum following ovulation.
#
# In females, secretion of LH and FSH both drop sharlply following ovulation and doesn't beging to rise again until the onset of the next menstural cycle.
#
# Cocci: spherical
#
# Bacilli: rod-like (such as e coli)
#
# spirochetes or spirilla: helical (least common of three).
#
# Pancreas synthesizes and secretes the following enzymes: trypsingogen (protein), cymotrypsinogen (protein), carboxy peptidase (protein), amylase (carbohydrates), lipase (fats).
#
# Small intestine secretes enterokinase, enzyme that converts trypsinogen => trypsin
#
# Trypsin converts chymotrypsinogen to its active form, chymotrypsin.
#
# If have pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, distion of lipids will be more effected since lipase is only produced in pancreas.
#
# If analysis of viral genome is 27% C, 27% A, 23% U, 23% G, this is SINGLE stranded RNA and not DNA.
#
# ADH aka vasopressin
#
# Osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus detect changes in the extracellular osmolality, particularly [Na]. When [Na]o increases, one gets increased ADH secretion and increased urge to drink water.
#
# ADH alters the permeability of renal collecting ducts to water.
#
# When no ADH present => collecting duct walls are impermeable to water and dilute urine formed.
#
# Na is excreted regardless of the level of ADH.
#
# Initially, the filtrate looks very much like plasma. Only the large protein and cells are retained in the blood stream; smaller molecules like glucose and aa's, and all ions, are filtered into the nephron tubule.
#
# Concentration of glucose is the same in the initial filtrate and plasma (since its filtered into the nephtron tubule).
#
# Immunologlobulins which are large proteins one retained in the blood, so their concentration in the filtrate=0.
#
# Na is small ion and is freely filtered so its conc in intial filtrate sis ame as plasma.
#
# A severe hemorrhage would decrease the volume of the extracellular fluid, but the concentration of the remaining fluid wouldn't change.
#
# Upon severe blood loss, the sympathetic division of the ANS would cause constriction of the arteries in an effort to maintain blood pressure. Also, due to reduced blood volume, blood flow would be reduced leading to a reduction in filtration and urine output.
#
# Decreased blood volume => decreases blood flow => decreased filtration rate => urine output
#
# The reabsorption of glucose is mediated by protein transporters in the proimal tubule of the nephron and doesn't depend on the medullary osmotic gradient.
#
# Decreased osmolality of medulla => decrease water drawn out of the collecting ducts => decrease concentration of urine.
#
# If use radiolabeled thymidine, it will only be incorporated if new DNA is synthesized and this will occur only if the cell is going to divide.
#
# If a cell line doesn't respond in any way to Factor X, either normal or mutant; it is probably cause the cells lack a Factor X receptor.
#
# If a cell line doesn't respond to a Factor when added, it could be because it lacks a receptor or b/c it is already producing and secreting the factor into its medium and can't increase its response any further (saturation). If it does decrease its rate when mutant factor is added, it implies that it has the factor receptor.
#
# The best evidence for a causual relationship btw the mutation and cancer is to show that in the presence of the mutation, cancer (unregulated proliferation) occurs whereas in the absence of the mutation there is no cancer.
#
# p+q=1; p^2+2pq+2^2=1 where p and q are allele frequencies.
#
# Natural selection can only operate if there is genetic diversity (will not occur if all alleles are homozygous)
#
# It takes one generation to establish a H-W equilibrium.
#
# Mutagenizing is likely to create many harmful mutation; never good idea w/ complex organisms.
#
# If 2 loci differ, it is not enough of a reason to do anything without further analysis b/c variation at two loci out of 1000 is very minimal.
#
# unchanged steroconfiguration implies that the carbon remained chiral throughout the rxn (therefore it had to have been sp^3 hybridized since there are the only ones that can be chiral).
#
# An oxidizing agents is 2 or more highly electronegative atoms directly bonded together. IE: HNO3, HClO4, O3 are all strong oxidizing agents; H3PO4 is a weak oxidizing agent.
#
# During RNA splicing, introns are removed and exons are conencted together.
#
# Splicing of hnRNA from a single gene can be variable. Alternative splicing can create different versions of a protein within a single cell or different versions of the protein in different cell types.
#
# Each antibody has two antigen binding sites; can form bridges that effectively tie many antigen molecules together. When antibody is cleaved so antigen binding sites are separated from constant region, no longer can crosslinking occur.
#
# Insulin functions to reduce blood glucose levels (by allowing cells to take glucose from the blood).
#
# Glucocorticoids funciton to increase blood glucose by mobilizing glycogen stores and promoting fat catabolism to spare glucose.
#
# Liver is the primary storage site for glycogen.
#
# The effect of glucocorticoids is to keep blood glucose elevated during stress conditions.
#
# If human adults have little x tissue, a genetic defect in the function of this tissue wouldn't have a significant effect.
#
# All mammals generate heat thru muscle contraction.
#
# Ach hydrolysis funcitons to reduce the duration of time that Ach spends in the synaptic cleft, not the frequency with which it is released.
#
# Rapid turnover of Ach is necessary to discriminate btw the end of one impulse and the beginging of another, this discrimination would be impaired if AchE inhibitors are present resulting in a single long stimulation of the muscle.
#
# Blocking Ach receptors would have no effect on the frequency with which Ach is released.
#
# Blcking Ach receptors would reduce the depolarization of the end place.
#
# Ach inhibitor will not affect the frequency in which Ach is released.
#
# Enzymes/proteins are fairly large and would be too big to fit thru an ion channel.
#
# When a neuron is stimulated and many Ach vessicles fuse with the membrane to release the NT, the neuron membrane gets a little larger. To return the membrane to its original size,to help recycle NT, and help recreate the vessicles, reuptake of NTs via endocytosis occurs.
#
# Na t-butoxide is a strong base and will react with the weak acids so the best solvent to use for the formation of t-butyl metyl ester w/ Na butoixide is benzene (inert to the alkoxide).
#
# For substitution to be favored over elimination, there must be a PRIMARY fragment without beta branching.
#
# Alkoxides are better nucleophiles than their protonated counterparts.
#
# When asked what gas if formed, look at the reaction!!!
#
# Uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation and electron transport is a heat production mechanism in brown fat.
#
# There are 3 stereoisomers of 2,3 dichlorobutane b/c there is a meso compound.
#
# Hypothalamic-putuitary portal system is used to deliver hypothalamic releasing and inhibint factors to the anterior pituitary. If this system is disrupted, anterior pituitary wouldn't be properly controled and result in widespread endocrine malfunction.
#
# Damage to any of the following would hinder the detection of all frequencies: AUDITORY NERVE (nerve would be uanble to send impulses to the braine…) and OSSICLES (unable to transmit sound waves to the inner ear; ossicles make up malleus, incus, and stapes).
#
# Damage to choclea would effect detection of SPECIFIC frequencies.
#
# Choclea is a alrge, curled structure in the inner ear, along which the basilar memebrane is stretched.
#
# Basilar membrane supports the hair cells of the ear (the sound receptors) and vibrates in sound waves. Since one end of the basilar membrane is considerably thicker than theother, maximum vibration of a particular area depends on the freq of the wave stimulating the membrane.
#
# IR stretch at 3410 cm^-1 indicates the presence of -OH groups.
#
# After a protein is translated at the RER, the signal sequence that got it there in the first place is removed (by a proteas). The hydrophobic transmembrane domain must remain, or the protein would fall out of the membrane.
#
# Trypsin can degrade proteins - if not seen on a gel it could be because they were so small and ran faster than the other proteins, and probably ran off the gel.
#
# Antibodies float around in the bood and in the extracellular fluid, so a portion of the protein that is accessible to host antibodies would be the part that sticks out into the extracellular space.
#
# Only the extracellular side of a membrane is glycolsylated and that this portion would be most accessible to antibodies.
#
# One of two things must occur in the experiment to ensue that a certain protein doesn't alter the translation mechanism: 1) no virtal proteins can be present. This can be ensured if all eukaryotic components must come from uninfected cells to ensure that no viral proteins are present; 2) if a viral protein is present, it must be known that it doesn't affect normal cellular function in any way.
#
# Blastocyst: fertilized ovum
#
# Corpus luteum: remainder of the follicle left in the ovary after ovulation; will regress if no fertilization.
#
# hcG: keeps corpus luteum from regressing.
#
# Corpus luteum secretes estrogen and progesterone early in pregnancy. After 6th week of pregnancy, the placenta itself produces sufficient estrogen and progesterone to maintain the endometrium. Corpus luteum is no longer necessary then.
#
# The corpus luteum is formed in the presence of LH.
#
# Purpose of hcG is to act as substitute for LH (since LH levels fall after ovulatoin).
#
# During pregnancy, the levels of estrogen and progesterone must be constant and fairly elevated to maintain/increase uterine lining.
#
# The blastocyst implants in the uterine lining (endometrum).
#
# Once the placenta is mature (months 4-9), it secretes estrogen and progesterone.
#
# Trophoblast is the early precurors (m,onths 0-3) of the placenta. It secretes hcG which acts in a manner similar to LH to maintain the corpus luteum.
#
# Estrogen and progesterone have negative feedback effects on the pituitary hormones (FSH and LH) => FSH and LH are lower in pregnant woman than nonpregnant.
#
# FSH and LH are expected to be cyclical (increases and decreasing) during nonpregnant times (during normal menstrual cycle), however, they remain consistently low during prenancy.
#
# Source of HCG is the trophoblast of the implanted embryo.
#
# Removal of both ovaries would result in the woman being unable to produce estrogen and progesterone during the normal menstrual cycle. Since estrogen and progesterone control the growth of the uterine endometrium, the absence of the hormonres would lead to a lack of uterine function (in other owrds, the endometrium would never be built up and never be shed off).
#
# Removal of both ovaries wouldn't termiante the pregnancy during 2nd trimester b/c estrogen and progesterone are produced by the placenta.
#
# The myometrium is made of smooth muscle that enlarges during prengancy and contracts during labor in response to oxytocin.
#
# The endometrium is closest to the lumen of the uterus.
#
# Myometrium is found around the endometrium, further from the lumen.
#
# Doubling the amnt of enzyme doulbes the # of available active sites and so doubles the rate of the rxn.
#
# Enzymes have no effect on the equilibrium constant (they don't change the equilibrium pt of a rxn, they only speed up the rate at which the rxn reaches equilibrium)
#
# Separtion of sister chromatids occurs in both meiosis and mitosis: meiosis in anaphase II; and mitoasis in anaphase.
#
# Pairing of homoagous chromosomes occurs during prophase I of meiosis.
#
# If need antimarkovnikov additon of water across dbl bond, hydroboration/oxidation would accomplish this.
#
# Put most bulky groups in the equatorial position!
#
# Gastric pH is very low and can kill pathogens, hydrolyze food, and activate pepsinogen to pepsin.
#
# Both PTH and calcitrol increase bone resorption => increase serum [Ca2+]; they can increase serum Ca2+ at different location: PTH acts at kidneys ; Calcitrol acts at intestine.
#
# PTH has an indirect role in increasing intestinal absorption of Ca2+ by increasing the conversion of calcidiol to calcitrol.
#
# All hormmones do not carry out effects directly: STEROID HORMONES bind to intracellular receptors; PEPTIDE HORMONES bind to receptors at the cell surface.
#
# One of the functions of PTH is to increase the conversion of calcitrol, a PTH deficiency would lead to decreased levels of calcitrol.
#
# Calcitonin acts to decrease serum Ca2+ conc.
#
# In the absence of vitamin D, intestinal absorption of calcium will be reduced, so plasma ca2+ levels will be lower than normal. This would trigger the release of PTH to increase plasma calcium through other means primarily via bone reabsorption.
#
# BPs for hydrocarbons: high MW usually translates into higher BP; increased branching decreases BP.
#
# Testosterone is genetically encoded and required to form the male system. In its absence the female system develops.
#
# In the absence of testosterone, the female system develops.
#
# The female system is considered to be the "default" system since no specific rigger is required to intiate its development, only the absence of the triggers for the male systems.
#
# One of the hormones produced during male development is the Mullerian Inhibiting Factor (MIF) which acts to suppress female devleopment. In the absence of MIF, the female system devlops.
#
# Mitochondria do not move.
#
# Mitochondria do not undergo mitosis.
#
# Prokaryotes reproduce via binary fission.
#
# Sarcomere is the repeated organization unit and the 1st thing in a muscle cell to actually get shorter.
#
# Sarcolemma is the plasma membrane ofa muscle cell.
#
# The SR is the enlarged smooth ER of the msucle cell and acts as a Ca2+ storage unit.
#
# Stretch of 1751 cm^-1 indicates the presence of a ketone.
#
# C9H14O indicates 3 sites of unsaturation (3 rings and/or dbl bonds or some combination).
#
# Organic cmpds are always much more water soluble when they are charged. Amines become protonated and charged upon treatment with acid.
#
# D's are invisible to proton NMR!
#
# Esters are readily hydrolyzed by base into a carboxylate salt and an alcohol.
#
# Aldol condensation converts two molecules into one.
#
# Ethers are stable in base (not reactive).
#
# Amine, carboxylic acid, or phenol would not remain in the organic layer after many aqueous extractions.
#
# 3500 cm^-1 is OH group
#
# 1700 cm^-1 is ketone C=O.
#
# A plasma cell is an activated B lymphocyte that is secreting antibodies.
#
# T lymphocytes destroy abnormal or infected cells, they do not secret antibodies.
#
# Macrophages are nonspecific phagocytes that consume a variety of things such as dead or injured cells, cellular debris from injury, bacteria, etc.
#
# RBCs don't secret anything and function only to carry blood gases.
#
# Calcium is released into muscle cytoplasm during muscle contraction, but this happens after depolarization and the ca2+ ions come from intracellular stores that are not regulated by the Ach receptor.
#
# Binding of Ach to its receptor produces depolarization of the muscle (Na+).
#
# Antibodies are constructed from two heavy chains and two light chains, that together form a Y shaped sturcutre.
#
# Stem of the antibody is the constant region and is formed from the heavy chains only; and is the same for all antibodies of the parituclar class (eg. IgA, etc)
#
# The arms fo the antibody are the variable antigen recognition site and are formed from both the heavy and light chains. The antigen recognition site must be variable (diff on each antibody made) so that an infinite # of antigens can be recognized.
#
# Antibodies are made of 4 polypeptide chains: 2 heavy chains, 2 light chains.
#
# Ach receptor is made by muscle cells.
#
# A free 3' OH is needed for DNA synthesis to occur.
#
# RNA nucleotides have a 3'OH and a 2'OH group.
#
# Nucleotide contains a nitrogen base, a sugar, and a phosphate group.
#
# Nucleosides: base attached only to sugar (no phosphate credit?)
#
# Adenine, guanine, thymine, and cytosine are nitrogenous bases (no attachments).
#
# Deoxynucleotides found incorporated into a strang of DNA include dTMP, dGMP, dCMP, dAMP. The buildling blocks (dTTP, dGTP, dCTP, dATP) are added to the chain by removing 2 of the phospahte groups.
#
# NAM and NAG units are linked by beta(1-4) glycosidic bonds.
#
# Prosthetic groups are not part of the AA sequence of proteins, but are nonprotein components of enzymes which are required for enzyme activity.
#
# dsDNA is produced through transcription and translation if original w/ signale stranded.
#
# Pregenome
#
# If the disease is said to be "rare", you should assume an individual doesn't carry the gene unless proven otherwise.
#
# Lymphatic capillaries are the start point of lymph return to the blood.
#
# Right lymphatic duct drains only the right shoulder area and the right side of the head.
#
# Lymphatic capillaries differ from blood capillaries in that they are more permeable to proteins.
#
# The thoracic duct drains the entire left side of the body.
#
# The lymphatic system is capable of returning white blood cells to the circulatory system; maintaining protein concentration in the blood; and tranpsporting fats from digestive tract to the circulatory system.
#
# Lymphatic system has no role in circulation of red blood cells - they don't escape blood vessels b/c they are large and lack the amoeboid motlity of white blood cells.
#
# Blood pressure is much higher than interstitial fluid pressure & conc protein is much higher in blood => proteins that leak out of vessels can't diffuse back in.
#
# In the disorder diabetes insipidus, ADH secretion is severely deficient b/c of decreased solute concentration in the urine. ADH causes H2O to be reabsorbed from urine. Without it, the urine is excessively dilute.
#
# ADH stiulates the synthesis of a tubular protein which acts as a channel, permitting H2O to cross cell membrane.
#
# Aldosterone stimulates synthesis of a basolateral Na/K ATPase which pumps Na out of urine and K+ into the urine.
#
# The proximal tubule doesn't play a role in regulatory plasma osmolarity. It functions to reclaim useful molecules such as glucose from the filtrate.
#
# The proximal tubule can absorb essentially all the glucose from the glomerular filtrate of a healthy person. To do so, concentration gradients must be overcome.
#
# Calcium binds to troponin which causes a conformational change that allows tropomyosin to shifts its position exposing the myosin binding site on actin.
#
# Creatine phosphate is a high energy buffer b/c it maintains the level of available high energy phosphates. During intense muscular exertion, creatine phospahte replenishes the muscle's ATP by transfering its phospahte gorupto ADP (negative delta(G) rxn)
#
# What makes ATP a particularly good energy carier is that it has an intermediate transfer potential. This allows higher energy phosphate carriers like creatine phosphate to drive the synthesis of ATP from aDP + Pi by transfering their phosphate group to ADP.
#
# Shivering is an asynchronous contraction of muscle fibers and the primary mechanisms for thermogenesis in adult humans. In fants and many animals utilize nonshivering thermogenesis, whereby heat is produced by increased metabolism, as in the "burning" of brown adipose tissue.
#
# Shivering is the contraction os skeletal muscle which are part of the somatic NOT autonomic nervous system.
#
# Pilerection and constriction of cutaneous vessels is a sympathetic autonomic response to conserve heat. PILOERECTION maintains insulatory layer of air; CONSTRICTION prevents loss by convection.
#
# Estrogen acts at the hypothalamic and pituitary levels to inhibit the secretion of GnRH from the hypothalamus, and FSH and LH from anterior pituitary. This is a classic negative feedback loop.
#
# Estrogen inhibits LH and FSH secretion.
#
# Preovulatory LH surge is essential for ovulatoin.
#
# Progesterone is responsible for the change in the endometrium that result in the secretory phase, names an increase in vascularizaiton and the storage of lipids and glycogen,.
#
# Estrogen is responsible for the proliferative phase of the endometrial cycle, and is also necessary for the secretory phase, along with progesterone.
#
# FSH, LH, and hCG act on the ovaries, not the endometrium.
#
# Ovarian follicle produces estradiol but not progesterone.
#
# The corpus luteum and the placenta are the only 2 structure that produces estradiol and progesterone.
#
# The adrenal medulla produces catecholamien (epi and norepi)
#
# If >1 individual in family afflected with diseases, disease may be inherited.;
#
# Characteristics of dominant pedigree: 1) every affected individual has atleast one affected parents; 2) affected individuals who mate with unaffected individuals have a 50% change of transmitting the trait to each fhild; 3) two affected children may have unaffected children.
#
# Characteristics of recessive pedigrees: 1) an individual who is affected may have parents who are not affected; 2) all the children of 2 affected individuals are affected; 3) In pedgrees involveing RARE TRAITS, the unaffected parents of an affected individual may be related to each other.
#
# NADP+ contains ribose, a pentose
#
# To split a protein into smaller pieces, protease and chemical regaents act to hydrolyze the peptide bond reversing the biosynthetic process.
#
# 750 bp => 250 amino acid (remember conversion)
#
# Bacterophage must puncture the bacterial cell wall, while animal virsues can be internalized into animal cells (since they don't have a cell wall).
#
# Disease is not caused by the few bacteria intially contracted by the host, but by many that proliferate during the infection.
#
# Mechanism by which glucose is absorbed from the intestinal lumen is by cotransport with sodium. The more glucose that is present in the lumen, the more Na that will be reabsorbed.
#
# The oxygen in the straight chain version of glcuose is a nucleophile, it attacks the carbon atom of the aldehyde to fomr the cyclic form of glucose.
#
# Alpha anomer which has the anomeric hydroxyl grp in the axial position predomintes at 40 deg C b/c the beta anomer is destabilized by the interaction of the lonepair electrons on the ring oxygen and on the C-1 hydroxyl oxygen.
#
# If mutation is responsible, then this will result in a protein with an altered amino acid sequence, or else the mutation would have no effect.
#
# Transformation: rpocess in which naked DNA , not a virus, is taken into a cell and changes the genetic characteristics of that cell.
#
# Transduction ismediated bya cirus.
#
# Conjugation involved direct transfer of DNA btw bacteria.
#
# Sexual reproeduction DOES NOT apply to bacteria.
#
# The acrosomal vessicle is a membrane bound vessicle that fuses with another membrane, the plasma membrane to release its contents.
#
# Phagocytosis: uptake mechanism.
#
# Absorption of nutrients is mediated by proteins in membrane.
#
# Steroids passively diffuse thru membranes.
#
# Following fusion of the acrosomal vesicle, Ca2+ and Na+ enter the sperm while K+ and H+ (protons) exit the sperm. Decreases in H+ conc allows actin to polymerase and the acrosomal process to extend.
#
# In humans, the fusion of the plasma membrane of a sperm and an ovum is followed by release of the 2nd polar body from the fertilized ovum. Human ova do not complete the 2nd meiotic cell division, including formation of the 2nd polar body until after fertilization.
#
# Fertilization => 2nd meiotic cell division =>< releaes of 2nd polar body => 1st cell division of the zygote => implantation happens a few days later => gastrulation occurs at a stage many cell divison after the 1st cell division.
#
# Zona pellucida: rpotective acellular layer located just outside the plasma membrane of the human ova.
#
# Glycolysis will occur under aerobic conditions, in which case the pyruvase will go onto enter the Krebs cycle as acetyl CoA and under anaerobic conditions (fermentation reduces pyruvate to alcohol and lactase).
#
# The atria contract during diastole.
#
# During systole, when the ventricles contarct, blood is forced into the aorta and the pulmonary artery.
#
# Atrial contraction (diastole) serves to completely fill the ventricles b4 systole begins.
#
# If H-W is maintained, then there can be no changes in the allele frequencies in the gene pool of a populaiton and no evolution which would not allow speciation.
#
# Catalyst: not sonsumer in the rxn but increaes the rxn rate.
#
# Acetic acid is the main ingredient in vinegar.
#
# Carboxylic acid protons are more acidic than phenol groups b/c the resonance structures for the carboxylic ion are better than the resonance sturcture for the phenoxide ion (think don't want to break aromaticity!)
#
# Water in air can react with ester to convert it into a carboxylic acid.
#
# If the pH of the titrate solution is not given, the ppKa cannot be determined from the information given.
#
# If 2 cmpds have different pKas, then back titration will work in distinguishing the two.
#
# Carboxylic acid protons are more acidic than phenol protons b/c the resonance structure for the carboxylate ion are better than the resonance structure for the phenoxide ion.
#
# In grave's diseases, the thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins (TSI) contain an active site that can mimic the active site of TSH to stimulate thyroid hormone rpoduction. One would expect TSI to cause an increase in thyroid gland size b/c of the trophic effect of TSH. If TSI mimics TSH, then it would produce the same repsonse: enlargment of teh thyroid gland. It is true that TSI would compete with TSH w/ binding, but TSI also stimulates thyoroid production indicating that it would have the same effect on thyroid size and TSH, and increase the size of the thyroid gland.
#
# Thyroid hormone causes feedback inhibition of TRH and GSH secretion.
#
# Tyroid hormone receptor is responsible for hormone signaling, including feedback inhibition by thyroid hormone.
#
# If thyorid hormone receptor is defective, this will prevent feedback inhibition causing TRH and TSH to become elecated => thyroid size increases.
#
# Iodine is require for hormone production, so in the absence of suffiient iodine, TH decreases => feedback inhibition will not occur => TSH and TRH will increase.
#
# In a normal individual, high levels of thyroid hormone would suppress the release of TRH by the hypothalamas and TSH by the anterior pituitary. Injection of even more thyroid hormone should suppress the release of TRH and TSH even further. I
#
# In goiter disease, ectopic tumors don't respond to normal feedback disease so injection of TH would reduce level of TSH in the system. The tumor only secretes TSH so TRH levels should respond normally to additional thyroid hormone, that is they should go down due to negative feedback.
#
# In the retroviral life cycle: 1) virus 1st reverse transcribed into DNA; 2) DNA integrates into host cell genome; 3) Viral genes are transcripted and translated (doesn't occur until viral genoem integrates into host cell genome; 4) new viral particles assubmeled.
#
# Isolated virus doesn't ahvea ny biological activity in the absence of a host cell.
#
# By blocking a repressor of DNA replication, an oncogene would sitmulate the cell to enter S phase and progress more rapidly through the cell cycle.
#
# There is no reason to believe that increased transcription of viral genes will increase the rate of cell division.
#
# Oncogenes are altered version of genes that are normally found in cells but which in this case have entered the viral geneome; The cell should contain two copies of a gene related to the oncogonee alhtough not identical.
#
# Conservation at the molecular level (iue. Both spirilla and flagella move by forming dynein cross bidges btw microtuble sturcutres ) is a more convincing support than conservation of structure at the gross functional level (ie. Some spirilla have flagella like components that enable them to move in watery environments).
#
# Both spirilla (bacteria) and eukaryotic flagella move byforming dynein cross bridges btw microtubule structures.
#
# Mitochondria do not have flagella.
#
# Mitochondria pump protons out of the inner membrane into the cytoplasm. The protons are not confiend to the intermembrane space since the outer membrane is very porous to ions and small ions.
#
# Nuclear envelope is porous to portein flow thru its many larges pores.
#
# Anything that strenghtens the endosymbiolotic theory is one that ltends to make the relationship btw mitochondria and the nuclear genome more distinct tends to favor the idea, as well as anything that places the mitochondria closer to modern bacteria.
#
# A poison that affects both prokaryotes andmitochondria but not the rest of the eukaryotic cell would palce mitochondria closer to prokaryotes, than eukaryote; sypporting the endosymbiotic theory.
#
# Increase overlap btgw actin and myosin cuses decrease in sarcomere length.
#
# Valine is hydrophib and would prob be found on the interior of a teriary structure of a globular enzyme.
#
# CO2: has 2 groups bonded to it and has no lone pairs => CO2 must be linear olecule and the carbon atom must be sp hybridized.
#
# The strong dipole moment of the C=O dbl bond is what gives acetaldehyde its strong IR absorbance.
#
# The final acceptor is oxygen which is reduced to form water.
#
# Electron transport doesn't directly drive atp prdocution. Electron transport pumps protons out of the mitochondria, creating the porton gradient that drives ATP synthesis. pH outside of the inner membrane including the intermembrane space is decreased relative to hte matrix of the mitochondria. There is no direct tnrasnfer of protons to ATP, only the energy of the movement of protons down a gradient drives ATP synthesis.
#
# FADH2 results in less ATP production compared to ANDH b/c the electron from FADH2 drive the creation of a smaller proton gradient than then electron from NADH. ATP production depends only on the # of portons that cross thru ATP synthase to reentre the matrix. This intern depends on size of the gradient (ie. # of protons pumped across the inner membrane) => increase in proton gradient => greater amount of ATP produced.
#
# Since the electrons from FADH2 enter the chain after the 1st complex (NADH-Q reductase), FADH2 is ultimately responsible for pumping few portons across the inner membrane than NADH => less ATP produced than nADH.
#
# High energy electrons flow down hill (energetically) from reduced carriers to more oxidized carriers. The intermeidate molecules are first reduced by the electrons but then oxidized back to their original state by the next member of the chain down the line.
#
# In the absence of oxygen: forementation can proceed to continue ATP preoduction; neither electron transport nor the Krebs cycle can occur w/ oxygen: CO2 is produced only in Kreb cycle by complex oxidation of glcuose; and water is porduced in electron transport.
#
# CO2 and H2O are not products of the oxidation of glucose in the absence of oxygen. H2O is produced only in electron transport. CO2 is produced in Krebs cycle. Without oxygen, electron transport and kreb cycle don't occur.
#
# Dinitrophenol is a drug that allows protons to freely cross the inner mitochondria.
#
# Fetal blood and maternal blood don't mix so the only way substances can cross the placental barrier is if they are lipid soluble or if they are actively transported. Amino acids are charged and can't cross the placental and fetal capillary membranes. CO2 and O2 are lipid soluble and easily cross the barier.
#
# Placenta => Umbilical vien (blood vessels that contains the most highly oxygenated blood in the fetus).
#
# Umbilical artery carries deoxygenated blood from the fetus to the placenta.
#
# Ductus arteriosus: prurpose is to help shunt blood past the inactive fetal lungs; does carry oxygenated blood in the fetus but closes shortly after birth so that this vessel isn't present in adults.
#
# At birth, the resistance thru the pulmonary circulation decreases dramatically as the lungs inflate and resistance increases thru the systemic circulation as a reuslt of the loss of blood flow thru the placenta. Increase in systemic resistance => 1) increase in LV pressure; 2) decrease in pulmonary artery, right atria, and RV as result of inflation of the lungs
#
# If the bromonium ion were not bridged, the positive charge would be found on the atom that doesn't have its octet satisfied.
#
# R2C=CHR is more reactive than CH2=CH2 b/c alkyl groups are electron donating making the alkene more nucleophilic.
#
# Bromoethane: exhibit spin-spin coupling in its NMR specturm since it is the only one that contains nonequivalent protons that are on adjacent Carbon atoms.
#
# 1,2 dibromoethane; 2,2 dimethylpropane; and ethylene allexhibit spin-spin uncoupling b/c exhibit equivalent adjacent carbons.
#
# The synthesis of mRNA is catalyzed by the enzyme RNA polyermase which moves along the antisense starnd in the 3' to 5' direction and synthesizes the mRNA in the 5' to 3' directon.
#
# Methionine (Met) is always the 1st codon to be transcribed; and is thereforea lways the 1st a.a. in the peptide chain prior to peptide modification and processing following translation. During processing following translaation, the terminal Met is typically cleaved.
#
# People living at high altitude tend to have a great vital capacity, a greater amnt of RBCs and hemoglobin, and an increased tissue vascularization tan people living at lower altitute or sea level. All of these adaptations serve to increase the oxygen capacity of the blood, since the atmospheric parital presure of xoygen is much lower at higher altitutes.
#
# Hemophilia is a sexlinked genetic disease characterized by a deficiency or abnormality of a clotting factor, and would therefore afect plasma proteins.
#
# People suffering from sicle cell anemia have low RBC count b/c sickled RBCs are very fragile and undergo lysis, thereby decreasing the volume of circulating RBCs.
#
# Leukemia => increases white blood cells.
#
# During the production of RBC's, which is known as erythropiesis, the nucleus of the primitive RBC shrivels and eventually disappears.
#
# A platelet is a fragment of bone marrow cell containing mitochondria, microtubules, vesicles, and granules but NO nucleus.
#
# Plasma doesn't contain any cells; it consists mostly of idssolved solutes in water but also contains respiratory gases, hormones, plasma proteins, wast eproducts of metabolism, and disolved nutrients.
#
# Main plasma proteins: albumins, fibrinogen, and globulin.
#
# Macrophages are large white blood cells filled with lysosoemes that engulf and digest foreign material.
#
# Leukocytes: white blood cels
#
# Genetic drift refers to change in the gene pool of a small population due to change such as a freak natural disaster.
#
# Reproductive isolation refers to the incompatibility of genitalia, which prevents interbreeding, typically among different species.
#
# If onlyl a couple base pairs are off, it will still bind to a probe b/c mostly all of the bases are still copmlelmentary to the prove.
#
# Silver nitrate test is used to detect triple bonds at the end of molecules. Cmpds w/ terminal triple bonds produce precipitate.
#
# Decolorize bromine in carbon tetrachloride => must be unsatruated w/ either dbl or trpl bonds.
#
# A sstrongly basic solution of potassium permangana te will replace a triple bond with a diketone. If the diketone is then treated with an acidic solution, it will produce two carboxylic acids at the point btw the two keto groups.
#
# Nondisjunction is dfeined as the failure of homologous chromosomes to properly separate during meiosis I, or the failure of a sister chromatids to separate during meisois II. End result: half of gametes wind up w/ 2 copies of same chromosome and other hal fwind up with no copies of that chromsoome. If one of these gametes fertilizes a normal gamete resulting zygote will either have 3 copies of that chromosome (trisomy) or one copy of that chromosome (monosomy).
#
# Since nondisjunction results in the movement of an intire intact chromosome, the base sequence of the nondisjunction chromosome remains unchanged.
#
# Translocation is when a chromosome breaks and the gragment that brekas off joins with a nonhomologous chromosome. New piece of DNA is added to a preexisting chromosome causing a change in the base sequence.
#
# 1,3 butadiene: CH2=CH-CH=CH2 compared to CH3-CH3 is that the pibonding orbital is delocalized across the single bond; there is more s character in the 1,3 butadiene single bond caused by overlap of sp2 orbitals.
#
# Pancreas: as endocrin organ secrete hormones (glucagon, insulin, somatostatin); as exocrin gland, secrete enzymes (trypsin, carboxypeptidase, lipase, chymotrypsin; aminopeptidase).
#
# Aminopeptidase: involved in protein digestion, it hydrolyzes terminal peptie bonds at the amino end. Secreted into small intestine by intestinal glands.
#
# HOOCCH(OCH3)C4H8CH(OCH3)COOH: the carboxyl grps here have pretty low acidity b/c the methoy groups are electron donating => destabilizes the carboxylate anions.
#
# HOOCCH(SO3H)COOH: electron withdrawing sulfonate substitutent adjacent to both carbonyl grps => stabilize both carbonyl anions => make both carboxyl hydrogen s highly acidic.
#
# Fungi have cell walls which are composed of chitin, but they also have nuclei bound by nuclear membranes.
#
# Epinephrine increases the conversion of glycogen to glucose in the liver and muscle tussue => causing a rise in blood glucose and in increase in basal metabolic rate => enhances athletic performance.
#
# Vasodilation of systemic system allows more blood to flow into the organs and mustl tissue of the body => providing an increased oxygen supply to the athletes muscle.
#
# Relaxin the bronchi muscle => ,ore air allowed to enter the lungs and thereby increase partial pressure of O2 in blood.
#
# In the absence of oxygen, glucose is converted into lactic acid and back into glucose and then glycogen in the liver. Lactic acid diffuses out of the muscle cells and into the blood stream and interstitial fluid to liver: lactic acid => glucose => glycogen
#
# During recovery from strenuous exercise, the fate of the lactic acid formed as a product of the glycogen lactic acid system is converted back into glycogen.
#
# Lactic acid would NOT enter the glycolytic pathway b/c in the glocolytic pathway, glucose is degraded into pyruvate, which in the absence of O2, pyruvate is converted into lactice acid. Goal of body is to get rid of lactic acid that it produced during exercise, not create more of it.
#
# Passage states that only extracellular water freezes during hyperglycemia => cytoplasm is intracellular fluid so doesn't freeze; blod plasma dn lymp are extracellular.
#
# C=O double bond will have a strong sharp band at 1700 cm^-1.
#
# MP of a mixture is never higher than that of the components of the mixture.
#
# A compound A that slowly dissolves in refluxing aqueous NaOH to result in the formation of 2 new compounds is constitten tonly with an ester. An ester is hdrolyzed under such conditions to form a carboxylate and an aloxide.
#
# Bacteria are prokaryotic and don't contain membrane bound organelles like lysosomes.
#
# Genes for conjugation are carreid on plasmid, and that during cell divison, plasmids may not be equally distributed among daughter cells. So if a bacterium containing genes for sex pilus construction gave rise to a daughter cell lacking these genes, this most prob occured b/c copies of the plasmid containing the genes weren't equally distributed to the new daughter cells.
#
# Oral cavity contains the salivary glands, which begin chemical digestion w/ the secretion of salivary amylase or ptyalin. Ptyalin/amylase: hydrolyzes starch to maltose.
#
# Esophagus: simply a conduit through which food bolus passes from pharynx to stomach.
#
# Peristalsis: controlled by the ANS
#
# Esophagus has 2 sphincters that prevent movement of food in the wrong direction; lower esophageal sphincter prevents stomach's acidic juices from entering the esophagus.
#
# Stomach contains numberous glandular cells: parietal cells (secrete HCl); chief cells (secrete pepsin); neuroendocrine cells (secrete gastrin).
#
# Duodenum has mucosal glands called Brunners glands which secrete mucus to protect the small intestine from the acidity of gastric joices.
#
# Jejunuum and ileum have crypts of lieberkutin which have mucus secreting glandular cells.
#
# Interstitial glands secrete aminopeptidase and dipeptidases: enzymes that hydrolyze peptide bonds and enterokinase which converts trypsinogen to trypsin.
#
# Ribosomes attach to the 5' end of mRNA.
#
# Formylmethionyl-tRNA is the initiator of protein synthesis in prokaryotes only.
#
# Paritetal cells release HCl in response to gastrin, acetylcholine, and histamine.
#
# Histamine stimulates HCl secretion by acting on sepcific histamine receptors on the outside membrane of parietal cells. If the parietal cell's senstiiveity to histamine was decreased, then less acid would be released.
#
# Common drug for ulcers: histamine receptor blockers.
#
# Antrum is the portion of the stomach that contains the majority of the parietal cells.
#
# A common treatment for severe pepticular disease after medical therapy has failed is an antrectomy. Removal of antrum decreases the amnt of acid produced by the stomach and therefore decreases the occurrence of ulcers.
#
# Pancreas releases negatively charged bicarbonate ion into the duodenum. This neutralizes the incoming acid and protects the duodenal lining.
#
# Pancreas secretes sodium bicarbonate which combines w/ HCl to form carbonic acid and NaCl. Carbonic acid dissociates into water and CO2; CO2 is absorbed into body fluids and the remaining solution of NaCl is neural.
#
# Liver synthesizes bile which emulsifies fats; also detoxifies the poisons of cellular metabolism; also, regulates blood glucose concentration.
#
# Gastric pH must be precisely controlled b/c gastric enzymes are most active at low pH. Gastric enzymes such as pepsin have optimum activity in an environment w/ a pH 2-3; enzymes are proteins; they rely on the appropriate ionic state of their primary amino acid structure for proper fctn.
#
# When acidic chyme enter s the duodem, it stimulates the release of secretin from intestinal mucosa. Secretin enters the blood stream and acts on the pancreas causing it to secrete large amnts of pancreatic juice w/ a high concentraiton of bicarbonate ion. Secretin is secreted whenever duodenum pH falls belwo 4.5.
B/c v is changing to;
# Nutrient obsorption occurs in the small intestine.
False; it’s the opposite
# Large inestine is involved in the absorption of salts and water.
False; desnity doesn't depend on viscosity (think of mercury and water)
# The most effective way to hydrogenate the dbl bond would be w/ a mixture of hydrogen and platinum.
False; fluid can flow in absence of pressure difference; it just can't accelerate since no driving force.
# Mass spectroscopy: moelcuarl weight of cmpd
No, since there is no driving force.
# NMR: carbon skeleton (specifically, it shows how many different nonequivalent hydrogen atoms the cmpd has and how the carbon atom's they're attached to are connected).
True.
# Infrared: indicates functional grps.
T/(pi*r^2);
# Hydrostatic pressure differential: net pressure of the blood and the tissue. Since hydrostatic pressure is greater in the blood, fluid moves out of the capillary into the institutaial space.
True.
# Hydrostatic pressure differential forces fluid out of the capillary.
mv^2/L + mg*cos(theta) where at the top of the pendulum, v=0 so tension = mgcos(theta). At the bottom, tension= mv^2/L + mg
# Osmottic pressure differential draws fluid into capillary.
True.
# Osmotic pressure differential remains constant along the length of the capillary b/c the plasma proteins always remain in the bloodstream, maintaining the conc of solutes in the blood at a fairly stable level.
The max tension in string during one oscillation is larger than mg b/c at bottom; Tension = mg + mv^2/L
# At arteriole end of capillary: hydrostatic pressure difference > osmitic => draw blood out.
on top of a mountain, acceleration due to gravity is slightly smaller than it is at sea level since we're further from the center of the earth.
# At venous end of capillary: hydrostatic pressu diff < " => draws blood in.
B/c the equivalence of inertial mass (the m in F=ma) and gravitational mass (m in Newton's law of gravitation) is responsible for the fact that mass is often missing in certain equations…
# Respiratory gases are exchanged btw the blood and the interstitial fluid via passive diffusion. No carrier molecules are required to transport gases across the capillary wall. No carrier molecules are required to transport gases across the capillary wall.
Equivalence of inertial mass and gravitational mass. Heavier object feels a larger gravitational force but it also harder to get it going so the larger force is balanced by the larger inertia.
# Capillary wall is selectively permeable, allowing only those particles that are soluble in the lipid membrane or those that are small enough to pass thru its pores to pass it => capillary wall is semipermeable.
In a pendulum, the centripetal force is always smaller than the tension.
# Most proteins dissolved in the blood such as albumin are essentially confined to the lumen of the capillary b/c they are too large to pass thru the pores in the capillary wall. This ensures that the osmolarity of the blood will be higher thus the osmolarity of the tissues which is why the osmotic pressure differential of the blood tends to draw water into the capillary.
L and g.
# Plasma proteins facilitate fluid exchange by maintaing the osmotic pressure differential, not by binding to fluid molecules.
B/c light will be lost at imprecise connections.
# Bond angle in cyclohexane is ~109.5 deg so angle straing is minimized.
False.
# Carbon monoxide is a gas formed by the incomplete combusion of carbon, and it's toxic b/c it readily forms carbon monoxide hemoglobin, COHb. COHb can't bind to O2 b/c hemoglobulin's affinity for CO is 210x greater than its affinity for O2. When CO enters bloodstream and binds Hb, amnt of Hb capable of carrying O2 decreases; hopwever the total concentraiton of Hb in the blood remains unaffected.
True.
# CO decreases amnt of O2 that is released to tissues causing anemic hypoxia.
True.
# Anemic hypoxia is condition when artieral partial pressure of O2 remains the same but the amnt of Hb vailable for binding O2 is reduced.
True.
# Since the arterial pp of O2 remains the same, chemoreceptors in the carotid arteries and aorta don't bcome stimulate and hence don't stimulate an increase in respiration.
theta=sin^-1(n2/n1)
# Anomers are diasteromers that differ only in their configuration around the 1st carbon (they are not mirror images).
True.
# Epimers are open chain monosacharides which differ in configuration around the second carbon.
True; therefore the # of neutrons, N, should increase faster than the # of protons, Z.
# Anomers: alpha anomer (hydroxyl substut on C1 is oriented down from the plane of the moelcue, trans to the substitutent on C5); beta-anomer: oriented up and cist to subst on C5.
a nucleus which will become a fissioning nucleus after the addition of one neutron. IE: if thorium-233 is the only thorium isotope that spontaneously undergoes fission, Th-232 is a fissile.
# Monosaccharide in an aqueous solution will form 2 isomeric cyclic hemiacetals or anomers.
X is a positron b/c need to balance out charge. Not a proton b/c then the mass won't be balanced out.
# Lysogenic virus is one that infects a cell, integrates itself into its DNA and then sites there for omse amnt of time b4 it does anything.
True.
# An attenuated virus is a virus that has something been weakend by mutation for instant - to make it safe to injest it into someone as a vaccine.
True.
# Genetic drift: a shift in gene frequency due to chance.
True.
# Translocation is when a chromosome fragment joins up with a homogous chromsome resulting in a hybrid chromsome that contains parts of the 2 original ones. Doesn't involve loss of DNA, just reassortment.
True.
# Increasing change of genetic divergence =>. Increases liklihood that it will undergo … into multipel species.
TRUE
# Genetic drift doesn't have anything to do with the appearance of new mutation -- it acts on all alleles, old and news.
#
# There is an increase in arterial pressure immediately before and during exercise; this is used by sympathetic NS.
#
# Vasodilation increases the blood flow thru those vessels supplying the active muscle and vasoconstriction of other systemic blood vessels diverts blood to the tissue that needs it most.
#
# Buildup of lactic acid occurs during intial stages of strenuous exercise when glucose metabolsim and ATP production outpaces the O2 supply delivered to muscle.
#
# Increasing CO ==> Increases O2 delivery ==> Increases time till buildup of lactic acid.
the # of moles of the reactants.
# For stability of cyclohexeane substitutents; the energy increases as follows (increasingly want it to be in axial too): Br, OH, NH2, CH3, CH(CH3)2, C(CH3)3)
#
# The antigen binding site of an antibody represents the antibody's tertiary structure. The tertiary structure of a protein is its 3D shape which is determine by interactions btw its constitutent amino acids including hydrogen bonds, disulfide bonds, and various van der Waals forces. This 3D structure in turn determines a protein's ability to interact w/ his enviorment and w/ its substrate which in the case of an antibody means its ability to interact with its antigen.
# Carbon dioxide is typically transported as bicarbonate ion, HCO3-, in the bloodstream.
#
# In the presence of ethoide ion, which is a strong base, alkyl halides will readily undergo bimoelcular elimnation to form alkenes.
#
# In blood, most of all the CO2 combines with water in the RBCs forming carbonic acid, H2CO3. This rxn is catalyzed by enzyme carbonic anhydrase => H+ and HCO3-. H+ ions bind to Hb molecules, thereby preventing a sharp decrease in blood. Once this blood has reached the capillaries of the lung, this process is reversed: HCO3- + HB+ => H2CO3 => CO2 + H2O. CO2 diffuses out of the capillaries and is expired via the respiratory tract.
# Centromere: specialized site that joins 2 sister chromatids together during mitosis.
#
# Probes having a greater degree of complementarity with normal DNA b/c it will bind better.
K = delta(KE) = 0.5*m*(v_f^2-v_o^2)
# Enolziaton may occure b/c a phenol (enol) form is aromatic and more stable than the correpsonding carbonyl form.
#
# Generally carbonyl cmpds are more stable than their corresponding enols unless resonance can be obtained.
#
# Tautomers structural isomers that are concepturally related by the shift of a H and one or more pi bonds.
#
# Lactose: breaks lactose glucose and galactose.
#
# Kinase: phosphorylates its substrate.
#
# Zymogen: an enzyme that is secreted in an inactive from of the enzyme. Import exs: pepsinogen, trypsinogen, chymotrypsinogen.
#
# Lipase: breaks down lipds into free fatty acids.
#
# Amylase, lipases, and bicarbonate are released thru the pancreatic duct.
#
# Glucose and amino acids are picked up by blood.
#
# Fats are picked up by lacteals which are specialized ecssels that connect with the lymphatic system.
#
# In the nephrons, the glomerulus, Bowman's capsule and the proximal and distal convoluted tubule are in the cortex while the loop of Henle and the colelcting tubule are in the medulla.
#
# Ammonia is transformed into urea in the liver and excreted by the kidney.
#
# Salts, glucose, and amino acids are reabsorbed by active tarnsport while water is reabsorbed by diffusion.
#
# All hemotopoiesis occurs in the bone marrow for adults.
#
# For fetus, hematopoiesis occurs in the fetal liver.
#
# Spleen acts as a reservoir for red blod cells and filters the blood.
#
# Blood platelets are crucial for the clotting of blood.
#
# Certain white blood cells such as macrophages and neutrophils engluf foreign matter.
#
# HPLC and chomatopgraphy in general are used to separte and isolate a mixture of cmopounds according to their solvent polarity and ability to move thru a column based on he cmpds affinity toward that column. Can use this to identify the # of indivudal cmpds.
#
# Without glucose-6-phosphatase, the phosphorylated glucose (glucose-6-P) obtained from glycogen breakdown cannot be dephosphorylated to produce glucose. Leads to hypoglycemia.
#
# Glucose is normally converted to pyruvate in the liver (infact, in all cells during glycolysis).
#
# Glucagon is a pancreatic hormone that leads to an increase in blood glucose levels.
#
# Lack of glycolysis is resposnible for increase in pH.
#
# Gluconeogenesis is the formation of glucose from precursor moelcules; this pathway occurs in the liver.
#
# Both fructorse-6-P and glyceraldehdye-3-P are intermeates in the glycolytic pathway.
#
# Muscle lacks the enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase so it is unable to convert glucose-6-P (produced during glycogen breakdown) to uncharged glucose which is capble of crossign the muscle cell membrane. Muscle cannot release glucose to bloodstream. IMportant in ensuring tha tmuscle has an adeuqate energy supply.
#
# Liver can convert pyruvate to glucose; this is gluconeogenesis.
#
# Liver and muscle can boths ynthesize glycogen from glucose.
#
# Muscle does rely on glycolysis for energy during exercose; ehnce the buildup of lactic acid (and the drop in pH mentioned in the passage) in muscle tissue during exertion.
#
# Glycogen breakdown is primarily regulated via hormonal (glucagon) and ionic (calcium and phosphate) triggers.
#
# Muscle glycogen is identical to all other glycogen found in the body; the export of glucose is prevented by the absence of glucose-6-Pase and the subsequent unability to dephosphorylate glucose-6-P.
#
# Primary storage depot for glycogen is liver.
#
# Adipose tissue stores fat.
#
# McArdle's disease (mucle glycogen phosphorylate - key enzyme in glocogen berakdown is absent in muscle). ADP/ATP ratio will be high in muscle (due to inability to produce ATP via glycolysis and subsequent the citric acid cycle) but should be normal in liver since liver glycogen phosphorylase is not missing. Levels of lactate during exercise will be low due to the inability to run glycolyiss (pH increase). Ina bility to usemsucle glycogen to produce glucose would lead to a demand for an alternative glucose source; this would most likely come from liver glycogen stores, and teh body would have a greater demand for liver glycogen than normal.
#
# Pedigree systemic analysis: (1) nis the disease dominant or recessive? If it is recessive you should observe alteration of generation which means that unafflicted parents may have children who are afflicted. (2) It is autosomal or sexlinked? If it is sexlinked, moremales than femlaes will have the disease. If the disease is rare, only males will have it since a female must be homozygous to have teh disease. (3) If it is sex linked, is it X-linked ot Y-=linked. If it is Y-linked, all males descended from an affected mate will also have the disease.
#
# If parents of affected indivuals are not affected themselves, they must be carriers and the trait must be recessive.
#
If the frequency of an X linked allele in a given population is 0.08, what proportion of males are bone with the disease?
The gender genotype for male is XY, thus males can be either X_normY or X_AbnormY. If the freq of the X_abn is 0.08, then the frequency of affected males is always just the frquency of the abnormla X. Note: HW eq don't apply here b/c there is no chance for males to be homozygous.
# Population is geographically isolated => no gene flow occurs.
#
> will attack benzene.
#
# Benzne is however not susceptible to nucleophilcif attack from such as grignard and alkyllithium reagents and hydroxides.
#
# Alkanes are inert to normal acids.
#
# Due to their strong nucleophilic, basic carbons, alkylithium reagents react violently with acid.
#
# Addition of H+ to alkenes results in carbocation intermediate (remember Markov rate).
#
# Lewis acids are moelcules that can accept a pair of nonbonding electrons. These molecules can be eaisly recognized b/c they always have a positive charge and/or incmoplete octet.
#
# Stereoselectivity: term used to define the orientation of attack of 2 molecuels added across a dbl or trpl bond. If it is not an addition rxn, then there is no stereoselectivity.
#
# Expiratory reserve volume: amnt of air that can be forcibly expelled after a normal resting expiration.
#
# In emphysema, bronchioles are obstructed during expiration and lung elasticity is reduced. Get increased residual volume; greatly expanded chest cavity. Patients with emphysema actually don't have difficult breathing in (their diaphram works just fine... they have problems breathing out!). Reduced lung elasticity greatly reduces lung recoil => these patients rely more heavily on ABDOMINAL contraction to help force air out of lung. Combined effect of obstructed bronchioles and reduce recoild is to retain air in the lungs ==> incrase residual volume!
#
Contraction of the diaphragm and the intercostal muscles drives inspiration. When the diaphragm contracts, the size of the chest cavity increases => increases thoracic volume => pressure in alveoli decreases below P_atm. This what allows air to enter the respiratory system.
#
# The brain is required for the inhibition of urination, not the actual urination itself, which is controlled by the sacral neurons. If the brain is removed from the picture by severing the spinal chord btw the sacral neurons and the brain (the thoracic region), the urination would simply become automatic in which the entire bladder empties when it becomes full whether the time is appropriate or not.
#
# Exmple of passive transport: movement of protons into mitochondrial matrix in oxidative phosphorylation, w/ the proton in flux => ATP synthesis.
#
# Secondary active transport (require ATP indrectly). Na/glucose cotransporter: movement of Na is driven by its concentraiton gradient and the conc gradient was initially setup via active transport.
#
# If the endocrine fctn of the pancreas was damaged, insulin and glucagon would no longer be secreted.
#
# A lack of glucagon secretions would prevent blood sugar from rising btw meals (ie. During fasting times.)
#
# Excrine fctn of the pancras is to provide digestime enzymes and has nothing to do with blood sugar regulation.
#
# Liver: secreting of bile salts (exocrine fctn of liver)
#
# The more substutitued the olefin is, is usually the more stable isomer.
#
# Decreasing generation time => increases growth rate… As generation time levels off, this indicates that the bacteria are approaching their maxmimum growth rate.
#
# A base when treated with an acid will go to aqueous layer and then be regenerated w/ subsequent treatment w/ base.
#
# If no peak downfield of 5.9 ppm => no aromatic cmpd such as benzene.
#
# A cmpd that reacts with cold KMNO4 suggests presence of a C=C bond.
#
# NMR peaks at 5.9 and 5.5 ppm are indicative of the presence of an olefin (C=C).
#
# TLC and electrophoresis are most conveniently used on a small scale.
#
# Distillation is a godo separation technique amenable to large amnt of material.
#
# Recombination (ie. Crossing over) occurs only during meiosis, the formation of gametes. Doesn't occur during normal cell division (mitosis) and there would occur during embryo formation.
#
# By the time the embryo has reached gastrulation, the cells are no long totipotent.
#
# Gastrulation: formation of the primary germ layers; clearly the cells are committed to a pariticular cause of development at this point. Lost the ability to differentiate.
#
# All mature (differentiate) cells contain the same genome and could theoretically be totipotent. Gene regulation causes some genes to be exposed in some ??? And other genes to e silent => lack of ability to express all genes that causes the lost of totipotency.
#
# Plasma membranes of skeletal cells don't contain gap junctions so they don't share cytoplasmic content.
#
# Need gap junctions to share cytoplasmic content.
#
# Cardiac and smooth muscle cells have gap junctions.
#
# IR absorbance at 3320 and 2120 cm^-1 are indicative of a terminal acetYlene (C triple bond C or triple bond C-H.
#
# Terminal acetylinese are somwhat acidic, thus the acetylene can be deprotonated and deuterum put in place of the propton => disappearance of singlet.
#
# Inhibition of the electron transport chain will automatically lead to inhibiton of the Krebs cycle (and the PDC)
#
# CO binds to cytocrome oxidase and prevents the final rxn of the electron transport chain => Krebs cycle and PDC inhibited.
#
# Myoglobin (in comparison to hemoglobin) releases significant amnts of its O2 wonly at relatively low PO2.
#
# Cholesterol is only a precurosor for seroid hormones.
#
# Vasopressin (aka. ADH) is a pituitary peptide hormone.
#
# Cholesterol is the precursor for the adrenocortical hormones including mineralcorticoids (aldosterone), glucocoritcoids (cortisol) and gonadocorticoids (including estrogen).
#
# Individuals that lock 5-alpha-ketosteroid reductase are unable to convert testosterone to dihydrotestosterone. In other words, they have an over abundance of testosterone yet their external genitalia fails to masculinize prior to puberty => thus, testosterone must not control masculinization prior to puberty.
#
# Maturaiton of the external genitalia is triggered by increased levels of testosterone during puberty.
#
# The stability of the products is used to determine delta(H_rxn), a thermodynamic principle.
#
# Sterid considerations in the transition state control the rate of chemical rxn (kinetics).
#
# A physical organic chemist argued that the formation of the axial alcohol is favored w/ bulky reducing agents solely b/c the hydride experiences minimal steric hundrance when attacking from equatorial direction => therefore, this argument is based on kinetic consideration.
#
# Equatorial OH's are more accessible to form hydrogen bonds w/ the stationary phase.
#
# 1,4 trans alcohols may have longer HPLC retention times using a polar stationary phase b/c equatliral OH's are more accesible to form H-bonds w/ the stationary phase.
#
# Axial alcohols don't necessarily have a higher BP.
#
# Hydrogens bound to more electronegative atoms have positive character and are electrophilic; not nucleophilic.
#
# Acid hydrogen tend to be electrophilic even before dissociation.
#
# nUcleophilic hydrogens are actually strogn bases.
#
# Aldehydes, esters, and carboxylic acids are all reactive w/ hydride baring reducing agents.
#
# Acetal is not reactive to nuclophilic attack by H (Reduce agents).
#
# Ca2+ is required to bind troponin, change its conformation, thereby changing the conformation of tropomyosin and exposing the myosin binding sites on actin.
#
# Tropomyosin and troponin are components of the thin filament (along w/ actin)
#
# Cones transduce color for the brain; (3 specitic types of cones and are specific for different wavelength of light).
#
# Rods respond to black and white image.
#
# Inhibiting the activity of Na-K ATPase pumps would result in secondary active transport being impaired (such as glucose pumps that rely on Na gradient)
#
# Anti is 180 degrees apart while gouche is 60 degrees apart.
#
# CO and CO2: carbon atoms are sp hybridized.
#
# CO3 2-: carbon atom is sp^2 hybridized.
#
# Cis disubstituted means that the ring contains two substituted groups on the same side of the ring.
#
# (CH3CH2)3CBr more likely to undergo an SN1 rxn than (CH3CH2)3CF: Bromine is a better leaving group than fluorine (it's less electronegative)
#
# Example of highest energy species on an SN2 rxn coordinate diagram (see notes). Transition state is pentacoordinated; usually nucleophile and LG are both electronrich.
#
Acid catalyzed addition of water to a C=C dbl bond begins with protonation of the dbl bond to form a carbocation. Nucleophilic attack by water result in formation of an alcohol w/ markovnikov regiochemistry.
#
# Addition HCl to a C=C dbl bond proceeds in 2 steps. 1) protonation of the dbl bond to form a carbonium intermeidate; 2) nucleophilic attack of a chloride ion to the carbonic completes the addition.
#
# In the pressence of peroxides, HBr adds to a C=C dbl bond via a radical mechanism: Addition of the bromine radical to the dbl bond produces a planar, sp2 hybridized carbon radical. Antimarkov: H added to more subistutted carbon of the dbl bond, while Br is added to less substituted carbon.
#
# In electrophilic aromatic substitution, the aromatic ring acts as a nucleophilc attack an electrophile. Due to the aromaticity of the ring, the ring is relatively unreactive and is a poor nuclephile. Extremely reactive electrophiles are used to overcome this limitation.
#
# A hemiacetal (made from the nucleophilic attack by water to an aldehyde) contains a carbon w/ a single hydroxyl substitutent (-OH) and a single akoxy substituent (-OR)
#
In an alpha-beta-unsaturated aldehdye, a nucleophile readily adds to the beat-carbon b/c the pi electrons are delocalized to which atom?
The carbonyl oxygen!
# Since the nucleophilic addition of an alcohol to an aldehyde is a one step bimoelcular rxn (that is, involving 2 diff molecules), it will exhibit 2nd order kinetics (rate of the rxn will be dep on the conc of both molecules involved.
#
# Know aldol condensation (loose H2o and form alpha-beta unsatruated cmpd).
#
# The least polar a cmd, the faster it will travel during TLC and the larger Rf value it will have.
#
# The regio nfrom 2100-2300 cm6-1 of the IR specturm shows the characteristic absoroptin of C tripble bond C and C triple bond N.
#
# 1700 cm^-1 correpsond to C=O.
#
# Valine is hydrophobic side chain.
#
# Glycine is the only naturally occuring achiral aa.
#
# In fisher projections, L places the hydroxyl grp of the sterocenter on the left side of the carbohydrate. (one furhtest from aldehyde).
#
# Alpha amino acid (like the 20 naturally occuring amino acids) contains an amine and carboxylic acid functional grp bound to the same carbon atom.
#
# A meso cmpd has sterocenter but no overall chirality due to an internal plan ce of symmetry.
#
# Electronegative atoms increase acidity thru the inductive effect.
#
# If a bound grp is positive, it will make a good LG b/c cleavage of the indicated bond will neutralize the positive charge.
#
# There is no nucleophilic attack on a carbocation intermediate for elimination rxns. For E1 rxns, carbocation is formed and a deprotonation of an alpha-hydrogen by a base results in the formation of a pi bond.
#
# Alkane halogenation rxns proceed by free radical halogenation. Alkanes have no potential LG. They don't undergo SN1, SN2, or E1 rxns.
#
# Addition of Br2 to an alekne cocurs w/ anti stereoselectivity, adding one bromine to each carbon of the dbl bond, from the opposite faces of the dbl bond.
#
# Potassium permagnagate (KMnO4) adds to hydroxyl grps across a C=C double bond w/ syn sterochemistry (from the same face of the dbl bond).
#
# B2H6 (or BH3) followed by oxidative conditions (hydrogen peroxide) results in the additoin of water (H/OH) across a C=C dbl bond (ANTI MARKOV).
#
# CaCO3/Pd is a poisoned catalyst.
#
# Radical hydrogenation of a C=C trpl bond to the presence fo sodium metal and ammonia (Na(s), NH3(l)) adds 2 hydrogen atoms across the dbl bond w/ antisterselectivity, produce an E alkene.
#
# Spectroscopy in general is sued in identification of cmpds.
#
# Distillation, crystallization, and extractions are commonly used techniqus to isolate an dpurify cmpds.
#
# Distillation would be the most conveneint technique to separate acetone (3-C) and nonate (9-C) b/c due to the large difference in moelculear size they will have very different bps.
#
# NaCl is an ionic salt => charge and has very high water solubility.
#
# PhOCH2CH2 can participate in H bonding w/ water b/c it can function as a hydrogen bond acceptor (O electrons).
#
# Ch3NH2 can participate in H-bond w/ H2O b/c it can function as a H bond donor (N-H protons) or acceptor (N electrons).
#
# 1CH3 is a strong base than -NH2 and -OH b/c carbon is less electronegative than N and O.
#
# For radical stability, if all are particular type (ie. 2nd ary), the look for stability from resonance.
#
# IN the presence of light, bromine reacts with alkanes in a process called free radical halogenation. This rxn substitutes a bromine for a H and is sel;ective for tertiary carbons over secondary (and primary).
#
# Bulky potassiu mtertbutoxide promote elimination rxns of molecules bearing leaving grps.
#
# KCN is a good nucleophile (-CN)
#
# Solvation of the starting material, stabilizes it => increases the activation barrier and slows the reaction rate.
#
# Hydrolysis is used to break down triglycerides, proteins, carbohydrates, and is involved in nucleotide catabolism.
#
# A nucleotie is a ribose sugar, a phosphate grp, and a nitrogenous base. The nucleotides in DNA are held together by phosphodiester bonds.
#
# Cellulose is found in plant cell walls and is not digestible by humans.
#
# Plants store carbohydrates as start.
#
# Animals stor carbohydrates as glycogen.
#
# Protein is the only major nutrient containing nitrogen.
#
# Fats such as prostaglandins behave as hormones.
#
# Phospholipid bilayer membrane is a fatty component of cell structure.
#
# Fats are a more efficient ofrm of energy storage than carboyhydrates and porteins.
#
# Boeth alpha and beta linkage in polysacchardies are hydrolyzed by adding water.
#
# alpha-1-4 glucosidase and beta-1-4-glucosidase: these are enzyme catalysts which are never reactants.
#
# Lowering the concentraiton of a substrate will only lower the rate of an enzymatic rxn if the enzyme is not saturated.
#
# Adding a noncompettitve inhibitor will definitely lower the rate of a rxn b/c it lowers Vmax.
#
# Increasing the temp, increases the reaction rate, however, is not usually a method used to accelerate enzyme catalyzed rxns b/c the heat changes the configuration of proteins (high temp will denature the enzyme).
#
# The implanted, fertilized embryo produces chorionic gonadotropin, which stimulates the corpus luteum to continue producing progesterone in a positive feedback mechanism.
#
# A competitive inhibitor may be overcome by increasing the concentration of substrate.
#
# Peptidases that function in the stomach work at a low pH. Once chyme enters the small intestine, it encounters an alkaline environment meaning high pH and most likely decreases their function.
#
# The Krebs cycle occurs within the mitochondrial matrix in all eukaryotic cells.
#
# As electrons flow, the carriers pass along one or two electrons, and are reduced (gaine electrons) then oxidized (lose electrons) until the last carrier donates electrons to oxygen. As electrons move within the e- transport chain, each intermediate carrier molecule is reduced by the preceeding molecule and oxidized by the following molecule.
#
# The electrons from NADH drive protons outwards across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
#
# The process of fermentation includes glycolysis which produces 2 ATP. The net ATP production from fermentation: 2ATP.
#
# Heart and liver cells can produce more ATP for each molecule of glucose than other cells in the body. This is most likely result of a more efficient mechanism for moving NADH produced in glycolysis into the mtiochondrial matrix.
#
# ATP synthase is on the inner mitochondrial matrix, NOT the outermitochondrial membrane.
#
# The introns (intervening seuqences) are removed during post transcriptional modification.
#
# When dealing w/ electrophoresis; its an electrolytic cell: (+) anode, (-) cathode => DNA has phosphate grps that are negatively charged and are attracted to the positively charged anode.
#
# DNA replciation is semiconservative, which means that both strands are replicated, and each old strand is combined w/ a new strand.
#
# Complementary strand of DNA are held together by hydrogen bonds.
#
# mRNA leaves the nucleus in its finished form (introns are already sliced out b4 it leaves the nucleus).
#
# Translation doesn't take place within the nucleus… even tho there are ribosomes in the nucleolus)
#
# The large subunit of an SOS ribusome is made from rRNA and protein.
#
# For tRNA: P site stands for peptidyl site where the growing peptide chain attaches to the tRNA.
#
# During translocation, a signal peptide is synthesized and attaches to an SRP complex in order to direct the ribosome to attach to the ER. Signal peptidases attach to SRPs to direct the ribosome to attach to a membrane such as the ER. The signal peptide is usually removed during translation.
#
# A primary spermatocyte has finished the S phase of interphase but not the first meiotic division. Thus, it has 46 chromosomes.
#
# In normal mieosis, the only change in the nucleotide seuqence of the thrid chromosome will occur during crossing over. Corssing over occurs in prophase I.
#
# In metaphase I, we see tetrads.
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# Centrioles migrate in prophase of mitosis.
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# Chromsomes align in metaphse.
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# Centromeres split in anaphase.
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# Cytokinesis usually occurs during telophase.
#
# During prophase of mitosis, centriole migration to the cell poles occurs.
#
# In meiosis: in prophase 1: a tetrad will form and genetic recombination will occur; spindle apparatus will always form…. Anaphase: chromosomal migration
#
# The life cycle of all oocytes is arrested at the primary oocyte stage until puberty.
#
# After replication occurs in the S phase of interphase, the cell is called a primary spermatocyte or primary oocyte. Just before ovulation, a primary oocyte undergoes the 1st meiotic division to become a secondary oocyte.
#
# Prior to infecting a bacterium, a bacteriophase must attach to a receptor on the bacterial cell membrane. The 1st step in the infection of a host is attachment of the phage tail to a specific receptor on the host cell membrane. The capsid on the bacteriophage doesn't enter the host cell.
#
# Animal viruses attach by recognizing a receptor protein and entering through endocytosis.
#
# In the lysogenic cyle of viral infection is a ecll that harbors inactive viral DNA in its genome.
#
A bacteriophage has a tail and fibers.
#
# Prokaryotes have a cell wall that contains peptidoglycan, ribosomes, and a plasma membrane w/o cholesterol.
#
# Transformation: DNA is aquired irectly from the medium.
#
# Transduction: transfer of DNA via a virus.
#
# There is no sexual reproduction in bacteria.
#
# Conjugation occurs btw 2 bacteria.
#
# A bacterium w/ an outer membrane is gram negative and protected against certain antibiotics such as penicillin.
#
# The exponential growth in bacteria is due to binary fission - asexual reproduction.
#
# Bacilli are rod shaped.
#
# Cocci are round
#
# Spirilli are rigid helixes
#
# Transduction, transformation, and conjugation aren't methods of reproduction in bacteria. They are methods of genetic recombination which is associated w/ sexual reproduction in eukaryotes, but not necssarily associated w/ reproduction in prokaryotes.
#
# Bacterial plasma membranes use a phospholipid bilayer.
#
# Bacterial cell walls are made from peptidoglycan.
#
# Fungi are unique b/c they are immotile and have a cell wall (like most plants), but are heterotrophic and not photosynthetic (like most animals).
#
# Fungi are saprophytic. Saprophytes are organisms that break down the dead remains of living organsims.
#
# Fungi are heterotrophs.
#
# The selective advantage is offered by the haploid state of fungi is that the haploid state can reporduce more quickly than the diploid state under favorable conditions. Haploid spores can form and spread faster and more efficeintly than diploid zygotes b/c they don't undergo meiosis.
#
# Similar to the plan kingdom, the fungi kingdom is divided into divisions.
#
# B/c fungus is more like human cells, drugs that attack fungi are more likely to affect human cells.
#
# Fungi are exodigesters; they put enzymes into their food while it is outside their bodies and then absorb the nutrients. Although dead matter is more susceptible to fungal attack, fungi may attack living or dead matter.
#
# Yeast is an example of a facultative anaerobe.
#
# With the exception of yeast, fungi are multicellular. Yeasts are unicellular.
#
# Fungal cells may contain >1 nuclei.
#
# Fungi lack centrioles . Mitosis in fungi takes place entirely w/in the nucleus, the nuclear envelope never breaks down.
#
# The flagella of bacterial are made from the protein flagellin, NOT from microtubules.
#
# All of the following are composed of microtubules: the tail of a sperm cell, the spindle apparatus, cilia of the fallopoian tubes.
#
# The nucleolus disappears during prophase.
#
# The nucleolus is the site of rRNA transcription. Nucleolus is not membrane bound and shouldn't be confused with the nucleoid of prokaryotes.
#
# Liver cells would be expected to contain a lot of smooth ER b/c its most active in detoxification, one of the jobs of smooth ER.
#
# Desmosomes are anchored to the cytoskeleton and are stronger than tight junctions.
#
# The nucleus runs the cell and makes nucleic acids.
#
# Golgi body packages materials for transport.
#
# RER makes proteins for use outside the cell.
#
# Smooth ER helps to detoxify alcohol in the liver.
#
# Hycholytic enzymes of lysosomes are activated by low pH achieved by pumping proteins into the interior.
#
# Invertebrates don't have myelinated axons to accelerate nervous impulse transmission. Instead they rely upon increased sized.
#
# Invertebrartes is a subphylum of chordata which is characterized by a dorsal nerve chord at some point in their development.
#
# Cerebellum controlls finely coordinate muscular movement.
#
# Involuntary breathing movements are controlled by the medulla oblongata.
#
# The knee jerk reflex is governed by the spinal chord.
#
# Second synapse: neuroeffector (an end-organ synapse)
#
# Every type of synapse in the PNS uses Ach as its NT except the second (neuroeffector) synapse in the sympathetic NS>
#
# An effector is an organ or muscle, something that responds to the neural innervation by making something happen in the body. Pilerection of the hair cells of the body AND contraction of the abdominal muscle during exercise: ARE mediated by skeletal muscles which don't receive autonomic innervation (symp/parasymp)
#
# A result of parasympathetic stimulation: vasodilation of the arteries leading to the kidneys.
#
# Pressure waves, or sound, are converted to neural signals by hair cells in the organ of Corti in the cochlea.
#
# Motor neurons exit ventrally from the spinal chord.
#
# An effector is organ or tissue affected by a nervous impulse.
#
# The CNS is composed of the brain and spinal chord.
#
# Cerebrum is also called the cerebral cortex.
#
# A simple reflex doesn't involve neurons in the brain.
#
# Aldosterone is a steroid (any hormone whose nerve ends in "sterone" or something similar is a steroid)
#
# Aldosterone exerts its effect by increasing the production Na/K pump proteins.
#
# Adrenal cortex is aldosterone's source.
#
# Renin is released in response to low blood pressure.
#
# All hormones bind to a protein receptor whether at the cell membrane, in the cytoplasm, or in the nucleus of the cell.
#
# Steroids and thyroxine require a transport protein to dissolve in the aqueous solution of the blood.
#
# Steroids are derived from cholesterol.
#
# Ach acts through a 2nd messenger system but is not a 2nd messenger hormone itself.
#
# Different steroids may have different target cells. Ie: estrogens are very selective while testosterone affects every, or nearly every, cell in the body.
#
# Steroids act at the transcription level in the nucleus, and are synthesized by the smooth ER.
#
# Steroids act at the level of trasncription by regulating the amnt of mRNA transcribed.
#
# Sympathetic: think "flgiht or fight".
#
# The hormones of the posterior pituitary are synthesized in the bodies of neurons in the hypothaslamus and transported down the axons of these nerves to the posterior pituitary.
#
# Menopaus can cause osteroporesis (decrease in bone tissue)
#
# Glucagon increases blood sugar, a good thing if running a marathon.
#
# ACTH: peptide that simulates the adrenal cortex to release glucocorticoids via the 2nd messenger system using cAMP. Release is stimulated by many types of stress.
#
# Glucorticoids are stress hormones.
#
# PTH stimulates osteoclast (bone resorption) activity. Also works in kendys to slow a2+ loss in urine.
#
# Testes normally descend during late fetal development.
#
# Increased secretion of estrogen sets off the luteal surge which involves increased secretion of LH and leads to ovluation.
#
# Epididymus is wher eteh sperm goes to mature and be stored until ejaculation.
#
# Testosterone is secreted by the seminiferous tubules.
#
# Progesterone results from the degeneration of the corpus luteum which occurs b/c fertilization of the egg and implantation didn't happen.
#
# Thickening of the endometrial lining occurs while estrogen and progesterone levels are high, not while progesterone secretion is decreasing.
#
# Increasing estrogen causes the lutea surge.
#
# The adrenal cortex makes many other steroid based hormones as well as testosterone.
#
# Mammalian eggs undergo holoblastic cleavage where division occurs throughout the whole cell.
#
# All of the following describes cleavage in human embryos: the solid ball of cells produced during cleavage is called a morula. The size of the embryo remains constant thorughout the cell divisons of cleavage. Daughter cells are genetically identical to parent cells.
#
# Pepsin is a catalyst which makes it a protein.
#
# A benefit for enzymes to be inactive while in the pancrease is that pancreatic cells aren't as easily replaced as intestinal epithelium.
#
# Stomach doesn't digest carbohdrates. If stomach acid secretion is obstructed, then a) fewer bacterial will be killed in the stomach; b) less pepsinogen will be activated; c) the pH will rise.
#
# Fat is digested in the small intestine.
#
# Bile is not an enzyme, its made in the liver and stored in the gall bladder.
#
# Most chemical digestion occurs in the 1st part of the small intestine, the duodenum.
#
# Parietal cells secrete HCl.
#
# Goblet cells secrete mucous.
#
# Chief cells secrete pepsin.
#
# G cells secrete gastrin into the blood.
#
# Fat storage takes place in adipocytes.
#
# Protein degredation occurs in all cells.
#
# Gluconeogenesis is the production of glycogen form noncarbohydrate precursors. This is performed mainly in the liver.
#
# Most fat digestates enter the lymph as chylomicrons via lacteals.
#
# Smooth ER synthesizes triglycerides.
#
# "Essential" means that the body can't synthesize them (in regards to amino acids)
#
# Non-essentila AA's are synthesised by the liver.
#
# Aas are absorbed by facilitated and active tranpsort.
#
# Glycogenolysis: glycogen => glcuose.
#
# Insulin decreases blood sugar levels => inhibits glycogenolysis.
#
# The only process available for removal of wastes by Bowman's capsule is diffusion aided by the hydrostatic presseure of the blood.
#
# The epithelial cells of the proximal convoluted tabule contain a brush border whose purpose is to increase the surface area available to reabsorb solutes from the filtrate.
#
# Renin secretion catalyzes the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II, which increases the secretion of aldosterone. If renin is blocked, sodum reabsorption decreases.
#
# Urine flows as follows: collecting duct => ureter => urinary bladder => urethra.
#
# Aldosterone is a mineral corticoid released by the adrenal cortex in repsone to low blood pressure. Low BP => increase in aldosterone.
#
# The loop of henle concentrates the medulla via a net loss of solute to the medulla. This process is critical to the function of other parts of the nephron; a medulla with a high concentration of salt allows for passive absoption of water from the filtrate in other areas of the nephron.
#
# The AV node delays the contraction of the ventricles of the heart. It sits at the junction btw the atria and ventricles, pauses for a fraction of a second before passing an impulse to the ventricles.
#
# In the congenital heart defect known as patent ductus arteriosus, the ductus arteriosus, which connects the aorta and the pulmary artiers during fetal development, fails to close at birth. This will lead to less oxygenated blood reaching the systemic system b/c some oxygenated blood will be shunted from the aorta to the lower pressure pulmonary artieries. The pulmonary circulation will carry blood that is more oxygenated than normal since highly oxygenated blood from the aorta is mixing w/ deoxygenated blood on its way to the lungs. The entire heart will pump harder in order to compensate w/ more blood to the tissues.
#
# Blood loos is likely to be more rapid during arterial bleeding due to the greater bp in the arteries.
#
# Gas exchange btw blood and tissues occurs in capillaries only; Cpaillaries are one cell thick and blood moves slowly to allow for efficeint oxygen exchange.
#
# Hyperventillation results in loss of CO2, leading to lower concentraiton of carbonic acid in the blood => increase pH.
#
# Hypoventilation: causes decrease in pH.
#
# Breathing into a bag would increase the CO2 content of the air and lead to acidosis.
#
# Excess aldosterone may lead to metabolic alkalosis due to H+ ion exchange in the kidney.
#
# In the presence of a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, the rate of gas exchange in the lungs would decrease since: 1) carbonic anhydrase is a catalyst; 2) catalyst increases the rate of a rxn; 3) if the catalyst is inhibited, the rate decreases.
#
# CO2 partial pressure is greater in the blood in the systemic capillary beds than in the alveoli of the lungs.
#
# CO2 pp would not increase in the blood as it travels from the systemic venules to the inferior vena cava b/c blood [CO2] will not change in the veins; it has nowhere to go.
#
# CO2 pp is greater in the systemic tissues than the blood in the systemic capillary beds.
#
# The bronchioles are surrounded by smooth muscle (can constrict).
#
# Cartilage cannot constrict.
#
# Heavy exercise manifests increased [CO2] leads to increased carboxyhemoglobin.
#
# Innate immune response doesn't involve humoral immunity (B-cell) or cell mediated immunity (T cell). Innate immunity systems responds to any and every foreign invader w/ the WBCs called grannulocytes as well as w/ inflamation and other actions.
#
# Old erythrocytes are destoryed in the spleen.
#
# Blymphocytes, Invading bacteria, and proteins discarded by tissue cells can be found in lymph node.
#
# Type B negative blood carries B antigens and not the Rh factor. Type B negative blood makes antibodies that will only attach A antigens and Rh antigens.
#
# Immunoglobulins, or antibodies, are involved in the humoral immune system, or the B cell system.
#
# ANTIBODY: think B cells; CELL MEDIATED IMMUNITY: think T cells
#
# Stomach acid plays a role in nonspecific innate immunity.
#
# Humor immunity is specific and acquired.
#
# "Swollen glands" are actually swollen lymph nodes that are buldging w/ immune cells gearing up to fight the invasion.