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60 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are stereocilia made of?
Microvilli
What are stereocilia connected by?
Espins and Fimbrins
What is the rootlet?
The thinner, smaller part of the cilium that is at the base
What is the thinner, smaller part of the cilium that is at the base called?
Rootlet
How many stereocilia per hair cell?
Up to 200
Supporting cells have what type of junctions? Why?
Tight. They must stay still, and keep perilymph separate from endolymph.
What is the kinocilium for?
Not much. But it does look like a lollipop, and that is something, no?
How long is the hair cell latency?
FAST. 50 microseconds.
Why is a fast latency good?
Discriminatory resolution. High-frequency sound waves may be sensed.
How are neuromasts set up? In what sort of animals?
Lateral line system. Fish. Cupola covers neuromast cells. They are organized in opposite directions.
What are the two major parts of the vestibular system?
Semicircular canals, the sacculus and utriculus.
The utricle measures
Horizontal movement
The saccule measures
vertical movement
Healthy human ear goes from ___ Hz to ______ Hz
20 to 20,000
Optimal sound Hz is
4000
Auricles function is
to gather sound
The three ear bones are the
malleus, incus, stapes
What is the eardrum called?
The tympanic membrane
What are the three scalar canals plus membrane?
Vestibuli
Basilar
Media
Tympani
How is the basilar membrane mapped?
tonotopically
where is the organ of corti located?
In the scala media
What kind of lymph is found in the scala media?
endolymph
What kind of lymph is found in the scala Tympani or vestibuli?
perilymph
What is the perilymph high in?
Calcium
What is the endolymph high in?
Potassium
What are the tips of the hair bundles embedded in?
The tectorial membrane
What are the tip links made of?
Cadherin 23
What sort of channels do we think the active channels are?
TRP channels
What protein is involved in habituation?
Myosin 1c
what shape are the cadherin links?
Forklike
Which hair cells are important for hearing?
The inner hair cells (95%)
Are the inner hair cells in direct contact with the tectorial membrane?
No.
What are the outer hair cells implicated in?
Cochlear amplification
Where is the helicotrema?
The apex of the cochlea
What are three things involved in amplification?
Hydraulic, lever, round window protection.
What is the input are to the inner ear?
The oval window
What is the part that oscillates in the inner ear?
The basilar membrane
What is the basilar membrane bathed in?
Perilymph
What feeds the ear cells?
The stria vascularis
What is the transductional point of the tip links called?
insertional plaque
What are the cells in the outer hair cell area called? What is special about them?
Dieter cells. They are electromotile. They transfer movement to the basilar membrane.
How does prestin elongate?
It elongates at hyperpolarization.
What does prestin press on?
Dieter cells, the basilar memrane.
What Ion is crucial to prestin?
Chloride.
Prestin KO mice have what phenotype?
They need louder sounds, have shorter hair cells that cannot contract.
How many decibels for a 10-fold change in loudness?
20
How many fold louder is 60db than 20?
100
What dictates loudness?
Amplitude
What dictates tone?
Frequency
What are dieter cells and Henson cells important for?
Ionic separation
Where might we find the lateral line system?
Bony, cartilagenous fish, larval amphibians
Is the neuromast internal or external?
Both
What determines the frequency of the secondary neurons firing?
The slope of the generator potential
What is the light response of the angelfish indicative of?
Integration of multiple sensory systems.
Why are sharks cool?
Some neuromasts become ampullae of lorenzini.
What is the crista ampullaris?
The business end of the utricle and saccule
Name a balance disease or 2
Meniere's disease, Benign paroxismal positional vertigo
What are otoliths made of?
Calcium carbonate
What is nystagmus?
Eye jitters
How many people worldwide have fucked up hearing?
275 million