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50 Cards in this Set

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What is the term used to describe biological electricity?
Excitability
That is the name of the specially adapted cells that can generate energy and what are the different types?
Excitable Cells
Nerve, muscle, and cardiac
What is the term used to describe the ability of the membrane to separate electrical charges on one side of the membrane versus the other?
Capacitance
What is the term used to describe the ability of the membrane to move(transport) an electrical charge across the membrane from one side to the other?
Conductance
In the cell model, what is the Fluid inside and outside of the cell called?
Inside is the Intracellular Fluid (ICF)

Outside is the Extracellular Fluid (ECF)

The outside is split into plasma and interstitial fluid.
What is the main model used to study excitable membranes?
Squids because of their giant neuron.
What is the net charge found on a membrane at rest?
-70 mV
What is the term used to describe the electrical charge of an excitable membrane when at rest?
Resting Potential
Resting potential is caused by the interaction of what two things?
Capacitance and conductance
What is the term for the equilibrium between the concentration gradient and the electrical gradient?
Gibbs-Donnan Equilibrium
What three factors control the movement of ions into and out of the membrane?
1) Concentration Gradient
2) Permeability
3) Electrical Gradient
What is the name of the equation used to determine the force required for the concentration gradient and the electrical gradient to maintain equilibrium?
Nernst Equation
What is the term used to describe the passive, random movement of a substance from a high concentration to a low concentration?
Diffusion
What is the Fick Equation?
ds/dt = Ds As (dc/dx)
Ds = the diffusion coefficient (a measure of permeability)
As = the surface area of the membrane available for the substance to diffuse across
dc = the size of the concentration gradient
dx = the thickness of the membrane
According to the Fick equation, when is maximum diffusion obtained and what are some examples of this?
It is maximized when As (surface area) is maximized and dx (thickness) is minimized. Some examples are the small intestines and the lungs.
What is the term used to define diffusion with the aid of a carrier molecule?
Facilitated Diffusion
What is the term used to describe the movement of a substance against the concentration gradient?
Active Transport
Where does the energy needed for diffusion come from?
Passive transport gets its energy from the collision of the ions against one another creating kinetic energy through the Brownian movement.

Active transport gets most of its energy from the splitting of ATP
What are the properties of water?
1) High melting point
2) High heat of evaporation
3) High boiling point
4) High surface tension
5) Universal biological solvent
What is the term used to describe a substance that disassociates 100% in it's charged ionic species?
Electrolyte (salts, acids, and bases)
What is a term used to describe a substance that has dual sympathy, such as it liking water but not liking water at the same time?
Amphipathic
What are the three central themes (mechanisms) of physiology?
1) Evolutionary selective pressure
2) Form Follows Function
3) Regulation
What is a broad definition of physiology?
It is the study of the function of living processes.
A concept discovered by Claude Bernard that said that living organisms preserve a distinct internal environment despite changes in the external environment.
Milieu interieur (meaning internal environment)
Discovered by C. Ladd Prosser, it is a group of neurons located in the central nervous system that produce a rhythmic neural output.
Central pattern generators
A philosophical approach that asserts that complex processes can be understood in terms of their components.
Reductionism
A phenomenon in which the patterns and properties of a complex system are the result of the interactions of the component parts of that system, and are not necessarily predictable from the operation of those components in isolation.
Emergence
Principle that for every biological problem, there is an organisms on which it can most conveniently be studied.
August Krogh principle
A strategy whereby the physicochemical properties of an animal (ex, temperature and osmolarity) parallel those of the environment.
Conformers
Animals that maintain a degree of constancy in an internal physiochemical parameter (ex, osmolarity or temperature) despite external changes in the parameter.
Regulators
A state of internal constancy that is maintained as a result of active regulatory processes.
Homeostasis
Regular changes in gene expression, biochemistry, physiology, and behavior that cycle with a period of approximately 24 hours.
Circadian rhythm
A simple neural circuit that does not involve the conscious centers of the brain.
Reflex control pathway/ reflex arc
For a given step or pathway, sets of controls that exert opposing effects.
Antagonistic controls
A regulatory mechanism whereby a step late in a pathway causes a decrease in the activity of a step earlier in the pathway to reduce the flow through the pathway.
Negative feedback loop
In a homeostatically controlled system, the level at which the regulated variable is maintained.
Set-point
A regulatory mechanism whereby a step late in a pathway causes an increase in the activity of a step earlier in the pathway to increase the flow through the pathway.
Positive feedback loops
The physical characteristics of an organism; the result of an interaction between the genotype and the environment.
Phenotype
The specific genetic makeup of an organism.
Genotype
Production of different phenotypes by a single genotype as a result of environmental cues; may be reversible or irreversible.
Phenotypic plasticity
A form of irreversible phenotypic plasticity, generally involving alternative developmental pathways.
Polyphenism
The range of phenotypes that can be produced by a given genotype when it is exposed to different environments.
Reaction norm
A persistent but reversible change in a physiological function that occurs as a result of an alteration in an environmental parameter, such as temperature or photoperiod. It usually occurs as a result of an experimental manipulation.
Acclimation
A reorganization of physiological functions that occurs as a result of complex environmental changes, such as season or altitude.
Acclimatization
The immediate or direct cause of an organismal structure, function, or behavior; usually refers to the development or physiological mechanism.
Proximate cause
Why an organism has a particular structure, function, or behavior; usually involves understanding the evolutionary advantage of the trait.
Ultimate cause
A change in the genetic structure of a population as a result of natural selection
Adaptation
A change in gene frequencies in a population over time as a result of random events.
Genetic drift
A phenomenon in which the genotypic distribution of a population is a result of historical events that caused the population to be established by a small number of individuals; often associated with a reduction in genetic diversity.
Founder effect
What are the four unifying themes in animal physiology discussed in the book?
1) Physiological processes obey the laws of physics and chemistry.

2) Physiological processes are usually regulated.

3) The physiological phenotype is a product of the genotype and the environment.

4) A genotype is the product of evolution, acting through natural selection and other evolutionary processes.