Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

68 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Is catabolism an exergonic or endergonic process?
What is the product of glycogenolysis?
What is formed by the direct phosphorylation of glucose by ATP?
Where does glycolysis occur?
In the cytoplasm
Which of the following cannot enter the glycolysis pathway?

glucose, fructose, galactose, or glycogen
Which coenzyme is use in most ox-red reactions of carbohydrate catabolism?
What is the product of the endergonic stage of glycolysis?
How many net ATP come out of glycolysis per glucose molecule?
2 ATP net
What is the final product of glycolysis?
What coenzyme must be reoxidized so that glycolysis can continue to produce energy?
To what does pyruvate convert under anaerobic conditions?
Under anaerobic conditions in a muscle cell, pyruvate is converted to which of the following:

ethanol, CO2 and H2O, acetyl-CoA
none of the above
In the 1st stage of glycolysis, is the production of triose phosphates an exothermic or endothermic sequence of reactions?
Where do oxidative (aerobic) reactions of metabolism occur?
in the mitochondria
What is the direct precursor for the citric acid cycle?
Are glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetonephosphate trioses, functional isomers, or monosacharides?
They are all three.
What are the (4) products of the tricarboxylic acid cycle?
- CO2
- 3 NADH
- 1 FADH2
- 1 GTP
Is gluconeogenesis the production of glucose from carbohydrate or non-carbohydrate sources?
What is another name for the respiratory chain?
the electron transport system (ETS)
True of false? The electron transport system is found dispersed in the mitochondrial matrix?
What metal ions, present in the cytochromes of the ETS, aid in the passage of electrons down the chain?
Fe 2+ and Fe 3+
What is the final acceptor of electrons (H atoms) during respiration?
What is the formation of ATP in the ETS called?
oxidative phosphorylation
True or false?

It is possible to oxidize the hydrogen atoms of acetySCoA w/o having oxidative phosphorylation occur?
True or false?

Oxidative phosphorylation and electron transport are coupled in the ETS.
True or false?

Glycogenolysis directly leads to the formation of glucose-6-phosphate which undergoes glycolysis.
Which of the following is a product of the pentose phosphate pathway (shunt)?

Which of the following is a product of the pentose phosphate pathway (shunt)?

- ribose-5-phosphate
- fructose-1,6-diphosphate
- galactose-1-phosphate
- phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)
True or false?

NADPH is the coenzyme used in anabolic reactions (syntheses).
True or false?

The protein complex which is responsible for respiration is dispersed in the mitochondrial matrix.
False. The protein complex is dispersed in the mitochondrial membrane.
True or false?

Before fats and oils can be metabolized, fatty acids must be released from triglycerides with the aid of a triacylglyceride lipase.
True of false?

The anabolism of fatty acids is called beta-oxidation.
False. Beta-oxidation is the catabolism of fatty acids.
What is the activator/carrier molecule used in fatty acid catabolism?
coenzyme-A, CoASH
How many molecules of acetyl-CoA do you get from the complete beta-oxidation of a 12-carbon fatty acid?
6 molecules of acetyl-CoA
Where does beta-oxidation occur?
In the mitochondrial matrix
True of false?

Fatty acid synthesis is the complete reverse of beta-oxidation.
What protein transports fatty acids through the inner mitochondrial membrane into the matrix?
True of false?

The synthesis of a 12-carbon fatty acid is achieved by the sequential condensation of 6 acetyl-CoA molecules.

Which coenzyme is the reducing agent used in fatty acid biosynthesis?
True of false?

The key intermediate in fatty acid synthesis is the free 3-carbon diacid malonate.
True or false?

Ketone bodies are formed when the concentration of acetyl-CoA in the cytoplasm is very high.
True or false?

In the cytoplasm, acetyl-CoA is used in the synthesis of non-saponifiable lipids.
What is the activator/carrier molecule used in fatty acid oxidations?
Which of the following is a ketone body?

- acetyl-CoA
- acetone
- malonate
- malonyl-CoA
Acetone is a ketone body.
What is the most important function of amino acids?
Synthesis of proteins
What are the two key amino acids in the catabolism of the amino group of amino acids?
glutamate and aspartate
What is the direct result of oxidative deamination of amino acids?
ammonium ion
What is the direct "fuel" for the urea cycle?
carbamoyl phosphate
What is the term for the production of glutamate from alpha-ketoglutarate?
True or false?

Oxaloacetate is the molecule which reacts with carbamoyl phosphate at the start of the urea cycle.
What is the second amino group of urea derived from?
True of false?

Glycogenolysis is the cleavage of glucose-1-phosphate from the ends of glycogen molecules.
Where does glycolysis occur?
in the cytoplasm
Which of the following can enter the glycolysis pathway?

- glucose
- fructose
- galactose
All of the above
What is the product of the 1st stage of glycolysis?
Under aerobic conditions in the body, pyruvate is converted to what?
True of false?

The production of triose phosphates in the 1st stage of glycolysis is an endothermic sequence of reactions.
How many molecules of CO2 are produced in one Kreb's cycle?
2 molecules of CO2
What is the net yield of ATP from the complete catabolism of one molecule of glucose?
36 net ATP
The majority of the ATP produced during the catabolism of glucose is formed during which process?

- oxidative phosphorylation
- glycolysis
- Kreb's cycle
- glycogenolysis
oxidative phosphorylation
What percentage of the energy available from glucose catabolism is trapped in the formation of ATP?
True of false?

Before fats and oils can be metabolized, fatty acids must be released from triglycerides.
What is the catabolism of fatty acids called?
True or false?

Acetyl-CoA is used in the synthesis of steroids in the cytoplasm.
What is the activator/carrier molecule used in fatty acid biosynthesis?
True or false?

Carbamoyl phosphate is produced by the reaction of CO2, ammonium ion, and ATP.
What is an anaplerotic reaction?
A reaction that replenishes a substrate needed for a biochemical pathway.
What is an amphibolic pathway?
A pathway that is both anabolic and catabolic