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21 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Any molecule used as a chemical signal between the cells of a multicellular organism.
growth hormone
A hormone produced by the pituitary gland that stimulates growth.
cDNA (complementary DNA)
DNA created in the laboratory from an RNA transcript using the enzyme reverse transcriptase. A cDNA corresponds to a gene but lacks introns.
cDNA library
A set of DNA sequences created by reverse transcription of a set of RNAs from a particular organism or cell type. A cDNA library is often used to identify and study the genes for all the proteins made by that particular organism or cell type.
pituitary dwarfism
The condition of stunted growth with normal body proportions resulting from a deficiency of growth hormone.
reverse transcriptase
An enzyme that catalyzes the production of a DNA molecule from an RNA template.
DNA polymerase
Any of several enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of DNA from deoxyribonucleotides.
recognition site
A specific sequence of bases that can be cut by a restriction endonuclease.
A small, usually circular DNA molecule that contains genes but is physically independent of the main, cellular chromosome.
restriction endonuclease
A bacterial enzyme that can cut double-stranded DNA at a specific base-pair sequence--the recognition site.
DNA ligase
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of a phosphodiester bond between the deoxyribonucleotides synthesized by DNA polymerase.
recombinant plasmid
A plasmid into which foreign DNA has been inserted.
A single-stranded fragment of a labeled, known gene that binds to a complementary sequence in the sample being analyzed.
sticky end
The end of a DNA fragment cut by a restriction endonuclease. The single-stranded bases on one fragment are complementary to the single-stranded bases on the other fragment. As a result, the two ends will tend to pair up and form hydrogen bonds with each other.
A short sequence of DNA that facilitates the binding of RNA polymerase to enable the transcription of downstream genes.
polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
A DNA synthesis reaction that takes place in a laboratory, in which a specific section of DNA is replicated over and over to amplify the number of copies of that sequence.
Taq polymerase
A heat-stable form of DNA polymerase derived from a bacterium that lives in hot springs.
DNA polymerase
An enzyme that synthesizes a growing strand of DNA by adding bases that are complementary to a template strand.
A short, single-stranded sequence of RNA or DNA that enables the start of replication of a DNA sequence that is synthesized from the 3' end of the primer.
deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP)
A monomer that is the essential building block for making a new strand of DNA.
A monomer that can be polymerized to form DNA or RNA.