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### 12 Cards in this Set

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 1. Align in ascending order the following components of the electromagnetic spectrum according to their energy: microwaves, gamma, ultraviolet, visible light, x ray, infrared, radiowaves! radiowaves < microwaves < infrared < visible light < ultraviolet < x ray < gamma 2. Define the limiting frequency (νmax) of braking radiation at V accelerating voltage! Vmax=eV/h where h is Planck's constant and e is the charge of an electron. 3. Is it the photoelectric or the Compton-effect during which the total energy of the X-ray photon is given to the electron? Photoelectric effect. 4. Align in ascending order the following transitions according to their energy difference: vibrational, rotational and electronic! rotational < vibrational < electronic 5. How can the momentum of a photon be calculated? p=h/λ; where h is Planck's constant, λ is the wavelength of the photon. 6. What is the difference between the orbital and spin angular momenta of an electron? - the orbital angular momentum originates from the orbital motion of an electron; its magnitude depends on the shape of the orbital and the interactions of the electron with the surrounding particles. - the spin angular momentum is an inherent property of the electron, its magnitude is independent of the surroundings. 7. What is the minimal energy of a γ-photon needed for pair-production? (Not numerically.) E=mc2, the energy equivalent to the rest mass of an electron and a positron. 8. Why is a heavy nucleus necessary for pair-production? The presence of a heavy nucleus is required by the law of conservation of momentum 9. What is annihilation? When a positron and an electron interact with each other, the total mass-energy of this particle system is converted to the energy of two gamma photons. 10. Give the three most important mechanisms responsible for the absorption of X-rays ! - photoelectric effect - Compton-effect - pair-production 11. Which mechanisms are responsible for the attenuation of X-ray passing through a material? - absorption - scattering. 12. What is the unit of the attenuation coefficient of radiation? [μ]=1/m.