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53 Cards in this Set

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What is a thin layer of air that forms a protective covering around the planet?
The Atmosphere
What would happen if there was no atmosphere?
Days would be extremely hot and nights extremely cold.
What three things can happen to the sun's rays?
Bounce of the atmosphere, absorb into the atmosphere, or absorbs into the earth.
What is the atmosphere made of?
Gases, solids, and liquids.
Earth's atmosphere was produced by what?
Erupting Volcanoes.
How did oxygen get on Earth?
Earth's early organisms released oxygen into the atmosphere as they made food with the aid of sunlight.
What protects the earth from the sun's harmful rays?
The Ozone Layer O3
What did the ozone do to help us?
It released oxygen and allowed green plants to flourish all over the Earth.
What gases are consisted in the Earth's atmosphere and what percent of it is in the atmosphere?
Nitrogen 78%
Oxygen 21%
Other 1%
What three particles are part of the atmosphere?
Salt
Pollen
Dust
How many layers are in the earth's atmosphere and what are their names?
5 layers
Troposphere
Stratosphere
Mesosphere
Thermosphere
Exosphere
What layer do we live in?
Troposphere
What percent of water vapor and gases are in the troposphere?
99% of water vapor
75% of gases
Where do rain, snow, and clouds appear?
In the troposphere.
Where is the Ozone Layer found?
At the top of the stratosphere.
Each molecule in the ozone is made up of what?
3 oxygen atoms
Shooting stars occur in what layer?
The mesosphere
Where does the space shuttles orbit the earth?
In the thermosphere
What layer is named for its high temperatures?
The thermosphere
Where is the ionosphere found?
Between the mesosphere and the thermosphere.
What is the ionosphere made of?
Electrically charged particles.
During the day, the radio only receives AM stations from a city near you. At night, you are able to listen to an AM radio station from a distant city. Explain why this is possible.
During the day, the ionosphere absorbs radio transmissions. This prevents you from hearing distant radio stations. At night, the ionosphere reflects radio waves. The reflected waves can travel to distant cities.
Why is it harder to breathe as you get higher in the atmosphere?
Air pressure is greater near the Earth's surface and decreases higher in the atmosphere. There are more molecules at the Earth's surface and less in the upper atmosphere.
What is the relationship between pressure and altitude?
Indirect relationship because the higher the altitude the fewer and fewer the molecules.
Molecules that make up air in the troposphere are warmed mostly by what?
Heat from the Earth's surface and from the ozone.
What two layers have the temperature decreasing with altitude?
The troposphere and the mesosphere.
The ozone shields us from what harmful energy?
Ultraviolet Radiation
What affects does Ultraviolet radiation have on humans?
It can cause skin cancer.
What air pollutant is destroying the ozone?
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
What can give off CFCs?
Refrigerators, hair sprays, air conditioners, and aerosol sprays.
What are the steps that are taken to destroy the ozone layer?
-Ultraviolet rays break apart CFCs
-Chlorine releases oxygen atoms from the 03
-Oxygen breaks apart and are recombined
How is heat transfered?
Convection
Radiation
Conduction
What is heat?
Temperature that is warmer than it was.
How is radiation transfered?
By rays or waves.
How is convection transfered?
By flow of air or materials.
How is conduction transfered?
By molecules bumping into other molecules.
Where does hot air and cold flow?
Hot air rises and cold air descends.
What is the hydrosphere?
Water on the Earth's surface.
What are the steps in the water cycle?
Evaporation then condensation and finally precipitation.
Which has more pressure; air or water?
Air has more pressure.
What is weather?
The atmosphere at a specific time and a specific place.
How is wind made?
By the uneven heating of the Earth and its atmosphere.
Why do some parts of the Earth's surface receive more of the Sun's heat than other regions?
Because of the Earth's curved surface, the Sun's rays strike the equator more directly than areas toward the poles.
What is the Coriolis Effect?
The rotation of the Earth causes moving air and water to appear to turn to the right north of the equator and to the left south of the equator.
What are global winds from the pole to the equator?
Polar Easterlies
Westerlies
Trade Winds
Doldrums
What are the two types of local winds?
Sea and Land Breezes.
What are jet streams, what layer are they found in, and what direction does it flow?
Narrow belts of strong winds found in the troposphere that flow West to east.
What are Sea Breezes?
The movement of air from sea to land during the day when cooler air from above the water move over the land, forcing the heated, less dense air to rise.
What are Land Breezes?
The movement of air from land to sea at night, created when cooler, denser air from the land forces warmer air up over the sea.
Clouds form during which part of the water cycle?
Condensation
What causes brown haze near cities?
a) conduction
b) mud
c) car exhaust
d) Thermosphere
c) car exhaust
Where is air pressure the least?
The Exosphere
Which surface winds are responsible for most of the weather movement across the United States?
Prevailing Westerlies