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10 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
ATELECTASIS
Collapse of the alveoli in a lung segment
4 main mechanisms or categories of atelectasis
RESORPTION ATELECTASIS
COMPRESSION ATELECTASIS
CONTRACTION ATELECTASIS
DIFFUSE MICROATELECTASIS
RESORPTION ATELECTASIS
Obstruction in airway(s) prevents ventilation, so existing air in alveoli gets absorbed and they collapse.
RESORPTION ATELECTASIS: Obstructions incude
mucus or mucopurulent plug
foreign body (FB), esp. in kids.
tumor:bronchogenic carcinoma
enlarged lymph nodes,in TB
COMPRESSION ATELECTASIS=
passive atelectasis or relaxation atelectasis.
lung displaced by:pleural effusion or tumor,elevated position of diaphragm in patients.
- bedridden, i.e. after surgery
- with ascites
CONTRACTION ATELECTASIS
(also known as cicatrization atelectasis )
caused by local or generalized fibrosis in lung or pleura.
DIFFUSE MICROATELECTASIS:
Gneralized loss of lung expansion due to inadequate surfactant.
Caused by:
- O2 toxicity = breathing high % O2 for TOO LONG
-eonatal or adult respiratory distress syndrome
- infection, which may cause adult resp. distress syn
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF ATELECTASIS
- dyspnea, cyanosis
- uneven chest expansion
- dullness to percussion, but
pneumothorax
- tracheal deviation
- dec'd breath sounds
-causes hyperrsonance or tympany
PROPHYLAXIS
- after surgery:
- encourage ventilation by:
- incentive spirometry
- coughing
- early ambulation