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### 22 Cards in this Set

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 The building blocks of sugars, and the substances used by plants in photosynthesis, are Water & Cardon Dioxide. In photosynthesis, water is split, oxygen is given off as a waste product, and hydrogen is combined with carbon dioxide to form sugars. Members of a group that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring are in the same Species. Only members of the same species meet in the wild and mate to produce fertile offspring. The normal body temperature of a person is 37° centigrade. Celsius and centigrade are the same thing. Water boils at 100° centigrade or 212° Fahrenheit. A liter is about the same as a quart. A liter is slightly larger than a quart. There are about 33 ounces in a liter, while a quart has 32 ounces. When heat is added to water, the added energy makes the molecules move faster. Adding heat to water gives the molecules more kinetic energy, resulting in faster motion. It does not change the energy level of electrons or the number of electrons in the molecules. There are 2.54 centimeters in 1 inch, 10 millimeters in 1 centimeter, 12 inches in a foot, and 3 feet in a yard. Approximately how many millimeters are in a yard? 900 A yard is slightly less than a meter. Since there are 1,000 millimeters in a meter, there should be slightly less in a yard. The expression 35 parts per million (35 ppm) is the same as 0.0035%. C. Parts per million can be converted to parts per hundred by dividing by 10,000 or setting up a proportion. 35 ppm = 0.0035 parts per hundred. hence percentage it is 0.0035% Two masses fall 3 meters to the ground. If friction is neglected, when they reach the ground both masses have the same speed. The acceleration of objects in freefall is independent of mass, resulting in the same speed at the end of a fall. The momentum and energy are proportional to the mass. The electric current in a metal conductor is carried by electrons. Electrons are the only charges free to move in a metal. Which of the following statements about diffusion is false? A. Diffusion is very effective over very short distances. B. Diffusion requires energy to do its work. C. The diffusion of water is called osmosis. D. Diffusion is the movement of molecules from a greater to a lesser concentration. B. Diffusion is the movement of molecules of liquid from a greater to a lesser concentration. The diffusion of water is osmosis, and no energy is required as these molecules move down a concentration gradient. According to the Law of Superposition all other factors being accounted for, the most recent (youngest) geologic layers are on the top. Since the slate layer is closest to the surface, it is the youngest. Which of the following is the result of the angle of tilt that the Earth has on its axis? summer and winter Day and night are the results of the rotation of the earth. Continental drift is often offered as evidence of plate tectonics. While the variable star field may be affected by planetary tilt, the position of the observer relative to the star field is also a major factor. The seasons, choice B, are the result of the directness of the Sun's rays hitting Earth's surface. The primary factor controlling directness of the rays of the Sun is planetary tilt. An extinct volcano has steep sides. Rock samples from the immediate area contain both basaltic and granitic rock samples. Excavation of the area reveals alternating layers of ash and lava flows. The volcano was most likely of which volcanic variety? composite cone The hallmark of a composite cone composition is the mixture of cinder cone characteristics (granitic debris, very steep cone profile, and explosive eruptions) with shield cone characteristics (large footprint with gently sloping sides, basaltic debris, and lava flows). When air masses meet, why does warm air rise over cooler air, often causing rain? Cooling air can hold less water vapor than warmer air. Choice A is a true statement but it does not explain rain, only the motion of the fronts. The motion of the warmer air over cooler air is due to differing densities, but it is the drop in temperature due to increased elevation and contact with cooler air (among other things) that causes the rain. As air cools, its capacity to hold water vapor decreases. As the saturation point is reached, excess water vapor condenses on particles in the air and eventually can fall as rain. The process of dividing one cell nucleus into two nuclei is called mitosis. Mitosis is nuclear division, cytokinesis is cell division, and meiosis is used for sex cell production. Sodium ions have a charge of +1. This is because they have one more proton than electron. A. Protons have a positive charge and electrons have a negative charge. Which of the following statements is true? Electrons are negatively charged and are found outside the nucleus. Both protons and neutrons exist in the nucleus, while electrons orbit the nucleus. People have 46 chromosomes in each of their cells. How many are in their gametes? 23. Gametes (eggs and sperm) need to have half the normal chromosome number, so that when they combine the correct number appears in the new cell. A gas has a volume of 0.25 liter at a pressure of 1 atmosphere. If the volume increases to 0.50 liter, and the temperature remains constant, the new pressure will be 0.5 atmosphere. As you decrease the volume, the pressure will increase proportionally, and if you increase the volume, then the pressure will decrease. What are the total number of hydrogen atoms represented in the following formula: C6H10(OH)6? 16. The subscript applies to each of the atoms within the parentheses. If red flowers were crossed with white flowers and all the resulting flowers were pink, what percentage of a cross between two pinks would be pink? 50%. In this case of incomplete dominance, each pink flower has one gene for red and one for white. When they combine randomly, one-fourth will be white, one-fourth red, and half pink. Vaccines work well because they prepare one's memory cells. Memory cells help us mount quicker responses to antigens we have previously encountered.