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115 Cards in this Set

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The distance that light moving at a constant speed of 300000 Km/s travels in one year.
Light Year
c=300000 Km/s

=186000 mi/s
The totality of all space, time, matter, and energy.
Universe
The grouping of stars in the night sky into a recognizable pattern.
Astronomy
name of the class
A pattern of stars in which they are not an official constellation.
Asterism
12 constellations through which the sun passes as it moves along the ecliptic.
Zodiac Constellation
Leo, cancer, Gemini, Taurus, Aries, Pisces, Aquarius, Capricorns, Sagittarius, Scorpio, Libra, and Virgo.
Are Constellations that never set.
Circumpolar Constellation
When a planet, star, constellation is in the viewable sky, entering the celestial sphere.
Culmination
Imaginary sphere surrounding Earth to which all objects in the sky were once considered to be attached.
Celestial Sphere
The direction pointing directly above a particular location.
Zenith
The direction directly below the observer.
Nadir
The line that separates the earth and the sky.
Horizon
Points, or directions North, Northeast, East, Southeast, South, Southwest, West, Northwest.
Cardinal Points
Two imaginary points (north and south) in which the earth rotates on it's poles.
Celestial Pole
An imaginary equator on the celestial sphere.
Celestial Equator
A point on the celestial sphere that goes through the north and south celestial poles.
Meridian
North and South Street in Indianapolis
When one celestial body moves in front of another.
Transit
When the Sun is directly above the earths equator occurring around March 22nd and September 22nd. Night and day are the same length.
Equinox
The path the sun moves throughout the sky.
Ecliptic
System for mapping positions in the sky.
Celestial Coordinates
The time it takes for the Earth to complete one rotation to the stars.
Sidereal Day
The length of the time that the sun takes to return back to the original spot.
Solar Year
The time it takes for the sun to return to the same position with respect to the stars of the celestial sphere.
Sidereal Year
The two times a year when the sun is at its greatest distance from the celestial equator.
Solstice
The apparent motion of an object.
Parallax
How many stars can be seen by the naked eye per day?
8 ~ 10 thousand
What proves that the earth revolves around the Sun?
Parallax
Average distance that most stars are apart.
4 light years apart
Natural motion of the universe?
East
Earth revolves how much per day?
1 degree
Earth rotates how much per hour?
15 degrees
Background of the stars appear to shift ______.
Westward
Is the sky approximately the same relative position 4 minutes earlier or later per day?
Earlier.
We rotate to the ______.
East
One complete rotation of the earth on it's axis with respect to the Sun.
Solar Day
One complete rotation of the earth on it's axis with respect to the Star.
Sidereal Day
A sidereal day is shorter or longer each day?
Shorter
How much shorter is a Sidereal day then a Solar day?
1 degree, or 4 minutes
An Imaginary transparent sphere surrounding the earth to which the stars appear to be attached.
Celestial Sphere
A point directly opposite from the Zenith.
Nadir
What are the two dependent factors that change the Zenith and Nadir?
Observer dependent and Time dependent.
An imaginary line in space located midway between the zenith and the nadir.
Horizon
An imaginary North, South, line on the celestial sphere that is directly overhead of the observer.
Meridian
The point that the Sun passes through the mid point.
Mid Day
AM stands for ...
Ante Meridien
PM Stands for ...
Post Meridien
An objects angular height above the horizon.
Altitude
An objects position with respect to the horizon angle from the horizon.
Altitude
The direction in which a line drawn from the zenith through the object to the nadir crosses the horizon.
Azimuth
Angular measurement of the horizon in a circle.
Azimuth
Greek Astronomer who created a very good geocentric model of the earth and planets.
Ptolemy
Polish Cleric that revived the heliocentric model. Calling it a more natural explanation.
Nicolaus Capernicus
Early observer that kept good records of the stars and events.
Tycho Brahe
Observer that became the "Imperial Mathmatician" of the Holy Roman Empire
Tycho Brahe
Observer that, using Tycho Brahe's maps, figured out the planets travel around the sun in ELLIPTICAL motions not circles.
John Kepler
Kepler's law #1
Orbital paths of the planets are elliptical with the sun being the one focus.
Kepler's 2nd law
The speed at which a planet traverses different parts of it's orbit.
Kepler's 3rd law
The square of a planets orbital is proportional to the cube of it's semi-major axis.
Father of experimental science
Galileo
Wrote down what he saw and published in Italian.
Galileo
Galileo saw three major things, what were they?
1: Sun Spots
2: Moons of Jupiter
3: Phases of Venus
Who invented calculus?
Newton
What was Newton's first law?
Law of Inertia
What law and who:

An object at rest will remain at rest.

Once an object is in movement it will continue to move.
1st law of inertia > Newton
Orbital motion is constant ________.
Acceleration
Every curve is an ________.
Acceleration
"0" zero acceleration is _____.
Normal
Which law and who:
Force / Mass
Acceleration is directly proportional to the applies force and INVERSELY proportional to the mass
Newton 2nd law
A= f/m

a=Acceleration
f=force
m=mass
Newtons 2nd law
Force is a push or _____.
pull
Which law and who:
For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
Newton's 3rd law
What is the Universal law of the universe?
Every object attracts every other object with a force that varies directly as a product of their mass and inversely as the square of the distance between thair centers.
What has gravity?
Every piece of matter.
What is the weakest known natural force?
Gravity
What two things affect the effect of gravity?
Mass and distance
Which affects gravity more, mass or distance?
Distance.
How much does everything shift per day?
1 degree
How much does everything shift per day?
15 degrees
how fast does the moon move per hour?
15 degrees
Which direction does the moon travel?
west to east

about 15 degrees per day
Half of the major axis is the ______-______ axis
Semi-Major
Semi-major axis is ______ to the distance from the one focus to any point on the ellipse.
Equal
_______ Describes the ovalness of an ellipse.
eccentricity (Keplers law)
________ means closer to the sun
Perihelion
________ Means farther away from the sun
Aphelion
Min distance equals ______ speed.
Maximum
Farther distance equals ______ speed
slower
Kepler's 2nd law is known as...
Area law:
Equal areas are swept if equal times are kept.
Kepler's third law is known as...
Harmonic law
Sky appears to shift _____.
West
North and south _______ ______, axis in space, imaginary space based.
Celestial poles
What is the Altitude of the Celestial Pole?
The latitude of the observer.
Imaginary plane on the celestial sphere directly in line with earth's equator. Also the midway point between the celestial poles.
Celestial Equator
The apparent annual path of the sun against the background of the stars.
Ecliptic
Imaginary plane in space that an extension of the earths orbit around the sun.
Ecliptic
What leads you around the sky at night?
Zodiac constellations
Which equinox happens in March in the North?
Vernal equinox
Which equinox happens in September in the North?
Autumnal equinox
Earth, happens in July (slowest orbital velocity)
Aphelion
Earth, happens in January (Max orbital velocity)
Perihelion
What is the longest day?
January 4th or 5th
How much bigger is the sun then the earth?
300000 times
Does the Sun and Earth attract each other (gravity) the same?
yes, the earth moves because it is smaller, less mass.
change of the distance is ______ squared.
inversely squared
The entire range of electromagnetic radiation is called ________.
Spectrum
Second weakest force of nature?
Electromagnetic
Electrons are positive or negative.
Negative
Protons are positive or negative
Positive
Higher energy and higher frequency gives you _______ wavelengths.
Shorter wavelengths
Higher energy and ________ __________ gives you shorter wavelengths.
Higher frequency
The measurement between one wave length to the same point on the next wave.
Wavelength
How often something occurs.
Frequency
A wavelength cut in half = increases or decreases the frequencies.
Increases
wavelength and frequencies are _________ proportional.
inversely
R M I V UV X G

Name the shortest to longest wavelength.
Radio Active
Microwave
Infrared
visual
ultra violet
x-ray
gama ray
What is ROY G BIV?
Red
Orange
Yellow
Green
Blue
Indigo
Violet