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131 Cards in this Set

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Venus and Mars are _______ planets.
Terrestrial
Venus is a bit ______ than Earth and has the same _____.
smaller

density
Venus' orbit radius is _____ AU, meaning it is _____ to the sun than the Earth.
0.75

closer
In 1962, Astronomers started using ____________ and ________ to start looking at the surface of Venus.
radio telescopes

radar wavelengths
Retrograde Rotation (Venus demonstrates this)
planet is rotating backwards relative to other planets
Venus rotates extremely ____
slow
Venus (does/does not) have a magnetic field.
does not
Atmosphere of Venus:
96% Carbon Dioxide

3.5% Nitrogren

Small amount of water, sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, and hydroflouric acid.
Why should Venus have been "wet"?
As the sun aged, it got warmer and so did Venus - vaporizing the water.
Why is Venus so hot?
A "runaway" greenhouse effect took place, baking the carbon dioxide out of the crust and leaving the planets surface at about 900 degrees.
Clouds of Venus are made from _____ and droplets of _______.
sulfur

sulfuric acid
The density of Venus' atmosphere is about _____ times that of Earth.
90
Venus (has/does not have) plate tectonics.
does not have
Venus' surface (is/is not) very volcanic.
is
Shield Volcano
Volcanoes are like those in Hawaii "hot spot" volcanoes.

No steep slope, more liquid lava.
The surface of Venus is made from ______.
basalt
______ craters on Venus' surface means that the age is very _____.
Few (under 1000)

Young (500 million years old)
Mars is relatively small; only ____ percent of Earth's volume.
15
Expect Mars to have ____ it's internal heat.
lost
Distance from the sun is about ____ AU.
1.5
The axis of Mars is tipped 24 degrees, leading to _____.
seasons
Mars (has/does not have) polar ice caps.
has
Best to view Mars at _______.
opposition
Mars (does/does not) currently have a magnetic field.
does not
The atmosphere of Mars is about ___ percent as dense as Earth's.
1
Mars' atmosphere is made of:
95% Carbon Dioxide

A few percent of nitrogen and argon.
The atmospheric pressure of Mars is too low for _____ to exist.
liquid water
The oxygen in Mars' atmosphere has reacted with iron in the crust to produce ______.
iron oxide (rust)
Largest Volcano is on Mars. What is it's name and approximate size?
Olympus Mons

Size of Arizona
Tharsis Rise
large "hot spot" volcanoes
Valles Marineris
Rift Valley that would stretch across the entire United States
Ice caps on Mars' North and South poles change with the seasons and are made of:
frozen carbon dioxide on top of water ice.
Mars has two moons named:
Phobos and Deimos
Phobos and Deimos are ___ moons with ____ albedos.
small (probably captured asteroids)

low (less than 10%, very dark)
Phobos' revolves around Mars in ____ time than it takes Mars to rotate ____.
less

once
Phobos rises in the _____, and sets in the ______.
West

East
Since Phobos is slowly nearing Mars, it will eventually:
crash into it.
Jupiter and Saturn are ____ planets.
Jovian
Jupiter is the ____ planet.

How many earth masses?
largest

318

2.5 times mass of all planets combined.
Saturn is the ______ planet.

How many earth masses?
second largest

95
Jupiter and Saturn (have/do not have) a surface.
do not have
Jupiter and Saturn rotate in about ____ hours.
ten

very fast
Cloud belts are ____.
dark

E to W wind flow
Cloud zones are _____.
light

E to W wind flow
Great Red Spot
giant low pressure "storm" on Jupiter
Jupiter and Saturn are not spherical, they are noticeably ______.
oblate
Oblate shape and rotation show that Jupiter and Saturn are made of _____.
fluids
Differential Rotation
equator moves faster than poles

(Jupiter and Saturn)
Jupiter and Saturn are made mostly of:
hydrogen and helium
Liquid metallic hydrogen creates Jupiter's:
large magnetic field
Clouds of Jupiter and Saturn are made of:
Methane
Ammonia
Water
Carbon Monoxide
Various hydrocarbons
Jupiter and Saturn give of ____ energy than they get from the sun.
more
Jupiter has the ________ planetary magnetic field.
largest and strongest
Jupiter's magnetic field is produced by:
liquid metallic hydrogen
Decimeter Radiation
0.10 m wavelength
Decameter Radiation
10 m wavelength
Jupiter and Saturn's magenetic fields produce _____.
aurorae
Big moons are broken up by ________.
tidal forces
Jupiter and Saturn (have/have no) rings.
have
Cannot see Jupiter's rings from Earth because they are _____ and made of _________.
tiny

micron-sized dust
Larger moons are found in the _______.
Roche Limit
Saturn's rings are _____ and _____ visible from Earth. They are made of _____.
large

easily

small water ice particles
Ringlets
about 1000 make up larger rings
F-Ring of Saturn
Shepherd Moons hold it in place. Inside moon puts energy in, outside moon takes energy out.
Jupiter's rings are _____ and _____ than Saturn's. Made of _____.
smaller

thinner

water ice
Saturn's rings are ____ in color than Jupiter's because they are made of _____.
darker

small bits of rock and dust
Saturn gets about _____ as much sunlight as Earth.
1/100

Ices are common.
Jupiter gets about ____ as much sunlight as Earth.
1/25

Ices are common.
Galilean Moons (names)
Io
Europa
Ganymede
Callisto
Rocky Galilean Moons
Io
Europa
Icy Galilean Moons
Ganymede
Callisto
Callisto
heavily cratered
old surface
surface is mostly water ice
surface is very dark (low albedo)
Ganymede
largest moon in the solar system
Europa
surface is bright white
new surface
very few craters

presumably the water ice is redone by liquid water
How is Europa's water ice redone?
The water ice is redone by liquid water. Tidal forces due to resonance effect and friction produces heat.
Io
No craters
Has many active volcanoes
Produce many compunds of sulfur
Color is yellow, red, and black
Most geologically active place in the solar system
Sulfur on Io does what?
conducts current and makes decameter radiation
Io is the most geologically active place in the solar system because of:
heat produced by tidal effects
Saturn's largest moon:
Titan
Titan
has substantial atmosphere
85% Nitrogen
Ammonnia

Organic "smog" covers it
Density is about 1.5 times Earth's atmosphere
Titan can retain an atmopshere because:
the surface is cold
Uranus and Neptune are _____ planets.
Jovian
Uranus and Neptune's solar winds are in _____ and _____.
belts
zones
Uranus is essentially tipped on it's _____, so seasons are _____.
side

extreme
Uranus and Neptune are blue colored due to:
methane absorbing red light
Neptune was the first _____ planet discovered.
predicted
Uranus' magnetic field is:
shifted off to the side in the mantle
The source of Uranus' magenetic field is:
liquid water mantle with dissolved ammonia and methane
Uranus' rings are:
pieces of frozen methane
Uranus has a ____ surface.
dark
Uranus' dark surface is from:
carbon produced by UV light interacting with methane.
Occultation
planet and rings cover up stars
Neptune's rings are ___ shaped.
arc

Don't go all the way around.
Moons of Neptune (names)
Triton
Nereid
Triton
Retrograde Rotation
Has a thin nitrogen atmosphere.
Is moving toward Neptune.
Triton is similar to _____.
Pluto
Nereid's orbit is:
extremely elliptical.
Pluto was discovered ______.
accidentally in 1930.
Pluto's moons:
Charon
+ two more tiny moons

Made of methane ice
Asteroid belt is found:
between Mars and Jupiter
Largest asteroid
Ceres
_______ gaps show effects of Jupiter through resonances.
Kirkwood
Asteroids are similar in composition to _______ planets.
terrestrial
Asteroids are ______ left over from the formation of the solar system.
planetesimals
Asteroids ______ frequently.
collide
Asteroid Classes
S-type
M-type
C-type
S-type Asteroids
"stony"; made from silicate rocks
M-type Asteroids
"metal"; made from iron and nickel
C-type Asteroids
"carbon"; have a large concentration of carbon
Leftovers from the outer solar system make up the _______ belt and ______ cloud.
Kuiper

Oort
Kuiper Belt is approximately in the plane of the Solar System in orbits just outside _______.
Neptune
Oort Cloud is a ________ distribution located thousands of AU from the sun.
spherical
Two types of comet tails
Ion Tail
Dust Tail
Comet tails always point _____ the sun.
away from
Comet dust tails are pushed back by ______.
light pressure
Comet ion tails are pushed back by _____.
solar wind
Body of comet is called ____.
coma
Dust particles from comets produce:
meteor showers
Meteoroid
small body still in space that's approaching the Earth
Meteor
an object vaporizing in the Earth's atmosphere (dust from comets)
Meteorite
meteor that lands on earth (come from asteroids)
Easiest to find meteorites in:
Antarctica
Meteorite "finds"
didn't see it fall
Meteorite "falls"
did see it fall
Iron Meteorites:
cooled from a molten state very slowly, a few degrees every million years
Most meteorite "finds" are:
Iron meteorites
Most meteorite "falls" are:
Stony meteorites
Two types of stony meteorites:
Chondrites
Achondrites
Carbonaceous Condrites
similar to carbon asteroids

have not been heated - come from a cold part of the solar system

still have volatile compounds
Achondrites
heated

lava
Widmanstatten Pattern
crosshatch pattern found in iron meteroites

due to slow cooling process