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103 Cards in this Set

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jupiter's color bands
due to photo-chemical reactions or lightning
jupiter's giant red spot
high pressure storm --8km ABOVE surrounding clouds
larger than earth
varies in size & color
cooler than surrounding regions
since 1664 -- continues becfause of incredible depth
jupiter's rotation
differential rotation
jupiter's composition
mostly solar
75% H; 24% He
rocky core, liquid metallic H, molecular H
jupiter's magnetic field
strontest in s.s.
rotation and conductive fluid
jupiter's auroras
protons & heavy elements from moons
jupiter's internal heat source & energy
twice the expected emission
possible sources of jupiter's internal heat fource
chemical - not right stuff
radioactivity - probably minor
nuclear fusion [fusing together, readioactive breakdown] - not right conditions
gravitational contraction - doesn't appear to be shrinking
RESIDUAL HEAT FROM FORMATION
saturn's color
bands & bluer color because photochemical reactionwith sun does not occur as often
saturn's composition
likely solar;much like jupiter
less He by a factor of -2 compared to sun/jupiter
less metallic H than jupiter b/c of pressure
second biggest
saturns's weather
banding exhists, less than jupiter
less light, colder, strong winds
storms come and go [longer than earth, shorter the jupiter]
saturn's magnetic field
smaller magnetic field than jupiter
less fluid, auroras still occur
saturn's internal energy source
twice the expected emission from planet
source of saturn's energy
no residual heat b/c less massive
GRAVITATIONAL ENERY --> TERMAL He RAIN
uranus color
blue becaus too far from sun for brown
methane absorbs red light & reflects blue
nearly featureless
banded ammonia clouds below methane haze
uranus' composition
likely solar
may have a substantial layer of water, highly condensed
possibly smaller rocky core based on density
possible small rocky core based on density
uranus' magnetic field
strength much like saturn's
water can conduct
uranus' axises
magnetic field and axis of rotation off by 55 degrees
possibly indicated dynamo in mantle vs. core
uranus' rotation
tilt of 98 degrees
since over 90 degrees N pole is below --> rotating backwards
effects of uranus' extreme tilt
extreme seasons & days
days are years on earth, then spring/fall 7 hr. day/nights
LONGER SIDEREAL DAY THAN SOLAR
uranus' temperature, heatsource and weather
temperature the same in both hemispheres - mixing
no enternal heat source
no weather
uranus' rings
detected b/c starts are blocked by rings
characteristics of neptune
blue b/c of methane
weather b/c of interal heat source
neptune's white cloud bands
methane crystales?
above other clouds (shadows)
neptune's dark spot
high pressure storm
neptune's discovery
preturbation in uranus' orbit
neptune's composition
hydrogen, ???, rocky core
neptune's magnetic field
greatly tilted from rotation axis
neptune's energy levels
twice that it should get from sun
no explanation
pluto's appearance
different coloration, mainly due to ice
pluto-kuiper express
usa flyby mission
comes and goes in reports
pluto's position & orbit
furthest planet from sun
highly eccentric orbit
comes closer to sun than neptune b/c of eccentricity
pluto's characteristics
smallest planet
weak methane atmoosphere
methane ice on surface
temperature below 40 degrees K
density suggests ice, rock, methane
pluto's tilt/incline
most inclined orbit 17 degrees from planes
large equitorial tilt to orbit of 117 degrees
pluto's magnetic field and energy source
not been able to be detected
jupiter's moons
61 moons
small moons are probably captured asteroids
galilean moon's
formed with jupiter
io, europa, ganymede, callisto
io
volcanic - 9 active [most active in universe]
no craters
slightly bigger than our moon
io's surface
rock density
young, constantly being resurfaced
sulfur based material eurupting
constantly moving back and forth to create liquid state --> volcanism
black->red->orange->yellow->white
io's auroras
sodium torus -- sodium left in path
charge sodium particles in torus get sucked into jupiter's magnetic field & cause auororas
europa
no cratering, smooth, young
liquid interior
ice & water surface
mostly ruck beneath surface
smallest of g. moons
europa's surface
pressure from tiedes melts water
ice cracks and water fills in
water evaporates leaving minerals
close to ocean composition
ganymede
largest moon in ss [about size of mercury]
ice, craters
no liquied inner layer
probably melted previously to differenciate liquid and rock
callisto
darker surface b/c has not differenciated
ice surface
any craters --> old
valhalla
biggest crater impact in ss
jupiter's rings
very diffuse
small dark material from moons
saturn's moons
31+ moons
titan
titan
larger than mercury
2nd biggest in ss
titan's atmosphere
thicker atmosphere than earth
b/c cooler can hold onto things more easily
nitrogen
argon
methane
-brown from sun light
-organic
-right conditions for triple state
-methane based life?
saturn's rings
easily seen b/c made of ice [sand to marbles]
only 100 m of materia, but extremely reflective
will disappear after 100M years b/c of friction
saturn's rings' rotation
rotate at different rates according to kepler's laws
resonance orbit of moon
resonance orbit
resonance orbit is a simple ratio between moon and particles' orbit
unstable orbit due to moon's pull
roche limit
comets that get too close to the saturn are ripped apart by tidal forces
depedent on size and material
cassini division
gaps in rings b/c of interaction w/ moons in resonance orbit
NO particles in dark regions
uranus's moons and rings
27 moons and rings
neptune's moons
11 moons & rings
triton
triton
retrograde motion -- thought to be captured
cantaloped & volcanically active
rocke and ice surface
asteroids
100,000 genearlly more elliptical orbit
big rock, generally abnormally shaped
ceres
1000km, 30% mass of all asteriods
2.3 - 3.3 AU away
apollo asteriods
cross the earth's path
about 2,000
10 near earth encounters a year
meteor
streaks of light cause by meteoriods
25M a day
meteorites
hit the ground 1000 tons every day
iron - rare
stony -90%
stony iron - rarest
> 1 km every few M. years
meteor shower
comet's garbage in earth's atmosphere
comets
dirty ice balls
dirt, ice, rock, mixed together
highly eccentric orbits
oort cloud
10,000-100,000 AU
theoretical resevoir for comets
kuiper belt
cloer than oort cloud
not sphereically distributed
head of comets
nucleus - 99.9% mass
10 km across
coma - gas melted off of nucleus 1M km across
comet tails
10^7 - 10^8 km long
dust tail
-curved, diffused
gas/ion tail
- thinner, straighter
- always points directly away from sun
- larger grains of sand left where comet passed [cause meteor showers]
light travels through space and space is a _______
vacuum
speed of light
300,000 km/sec
NO MATTER THE WAVELENGTH, light moves at the same SPEED; number of PEAKS are different
equation for speed of light
wavelength x frequency (peaks per second) = C
vissual light
400 nm [blue] - 700 nm [red]
short wavelength =
large f; large energy
ultraviolet
x-rays
gamma rays
long wavelenth =
small f; small energy
infarred
radio
kirchoff's laws for radiation
1. solid body or object emits continuous spectum
2. continuous spectrum passing through cooler gas will have some light removal at specific wavelenghts
solid objects are ____ when heated
brighter

red --> white
[red = less energetic, blue = more energetic]
increase temperature
more energy on all wavelengths
peak at lower frequencey [more energetic light]
absorbtion spectrum
low denisty gas emits light only at certain wavelenghts
stars
emission spectrum
made of discrete frequencies rather than continuous [the gas through which light travels]
chromosphere when photosphere covered
the sun's rotation
differential rotation
period of 27 days
sun's luminosity [energy]
4 x 10^26 watts
extremely constant over time
potential sources of sun's energy:
CHEMICAL BURNING
couldn't be so constant
potential sources of sun's energy:
SLOW CONTRACTION
contratcion few meters per month
cannot use for 5 billion years
potential sources of sun's energy:
NUCLEAR REACTIONS
fusion -- putting elements together to release energy
need high temperature and high pressure
4H -> 1 He
only in centeral 10% of sun
sun's interior
15 M degrees K
1.3 billion pressure of earth's surface
sun heat transport:
CONDUCTION
vibrations from hot object hit others
nope
sun heat transport:
CONVECTION
moving heated material
outer 1/3
sun heat transport:
RADIATION
transferring energy through light
most 2/3 of inner
nuetrinos
extra product of fusion
don't react well with anything
travel effortlessly, universe = transparent
react with tetrachloride to create argon atoms
how photon's escape sun
take random walk out from center
takes long time [30,000 years]
apparent magnitude
brightness from earth
depends on starts luminosity & distance
hipparchus' scale
bigger magnitude are dimmer stars
smaller magnitude are brighter stars
parallax
aparent motion of stars due to your change in view point
distance in parsecs equation
d(pc)=1/pa

pa=1/p(dc)
absolute magnitude
luminosity
apparent magnitude of star at 10pc -- elminates distance issues
starts with smaller absolute magnitudes are truly brighter stars
how do you determine the temperature of a star
color b/c color reflects temperature
temperature of stars & spectral class
35,000 - 60,000 k
O B A F G K M [hot --> cold]
subdivided inot 10 units [hot --> cold]
stars of same rating are all of same abosrobtion and temperature
hertzsprung-russel diagram
temperature [spectral class] vs. luminosity

*line width = up& down
color = right to left
*need to know distance to stars for diagram
*smame temperature and luminosity = same size
luminosity classes:
CLASS I.
supergiants
luminosity classes:
CLASS III
giants
luminosity classes:
CLASS V
dwarf [main sequence stars]
white dwarfs not included b/c not producing energy
uses of h-r diagram
spectroscopic parallax -- to get stars distances

get stars size
stars masses
from orbits with bianary systems and newton's laws