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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is weight?W
the measure of gravity's force on a planet, moon, ,stars, etc. CHANGES.
What are Newton's laws of motion?
1- a body stays at rest or in motion unless acted upon by an outside force, 2- F=mass*acceleration. (these two laws combine to produce orbital motion), 3- each body exerts an equal and oppositie force on each other.
How do we use Newton's laws?
we can calculate that velocity needed to escape from a body's gravitational field
How do planets lie?
almost all in the same plane
How are Sun and planets related?
Sun's gravity holds planets in orbit, and they orbit the same way the sun rotates., EXCEPT VENUS AND URANUS
What is the Common Age for everything in our solar system? How do we know?
4.6 billion years, based on ages of meteorites and radioisotopic dating
What does density tell us about a planet?
it tells us its composition
What is the density formula?
density=mass/volume g/cm^3 or kg/l
What is the density of the ENTIRE earth?
5.5 kg/l
What are the two groups of planets? exs?
Terrestrial group (Mercuty, Venus, Earth, Mars) and Jovian group (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune)
What are characteristics of terrestrial planet?
small diameter, low mas, dense solid rocky surface, thin-thin/ no atmosphere, slow rotations, few satellites
What are characteristics of jovian planets?
large diameter, high mass, low density, no solid surface, huge gaseous atmosphere, fast rotations, many satellites/rings
What is the solar nebula theory? What does it say?
Explains formation of solar system. Explanation- solar nebula was rotation, and gravity was drawing gas toward the center of the nebula to form Sun, but inertia prevented all stuff to end up in the sun. As a rsult, some stuff made planets, moons, etc. Gas formed a thin disk, so now planetary orbits retain this disk shape.
What phase of the moon and the Sun are close in the sky in the early evening?
Waxing crescent
Which phases of the moon can have earthshine?
waxing crescent, waning crescent
What is condensation?
when gas cools as solid grains/ices form. Highly temperature-sensitvie
What makes jovian atmospheres and terrestrial atmospheres different?
Jovians where able to trap more gases in the formation because of their sheer size, while terrestrials only gow metallic and silicate
What is accretion? Why do we care?
particles that stick together. Grazing collisions reult in planetesimals, and these pl. accret to form protoplanets.
What is differentiation? Ex.
when dense materials sink. Planetary interiors are denser than crust b/c of differentiation
What is the order of the creation of planets?
solar nebula, protoplanets, solar system
What is the density of the Earth's surface?
2-3 kg/l
What do we learn from seimic studes?
Earthquakes sense waves through Earth, and allows us to figure out earth's density
What do P waves go through and how do they move?
move through solids AND liquids. They compress (think- spring)
What do S waves go through and how do they move?
move ONLY through solids. They move like a moving jump rope
What is the density of the E's core? What is the result of this?
8-9 kg/l. Earth has liquid core
How is the Earth's magnetic field oriented?
oriented like a bar magnet to N and S magnetic poles (think- compass)
How different is the Earth's mag pole from the actual North pole?
~11 degrees, yet it wanders
What are magnetic fields generated by?
moving charges (electrons)
What is the theory about the Earth's mag field?
That it is generated in hot, liquid, metallic core region.
Who first came up the heliocentric model?