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105 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Constellations are close clusters of stars, all at about the same distance from the sun.
False. The stars are all in the same part of the sky, but their distances can vary greatly.

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From the South Pole, Polaris would appear directly overhead.
False. Polaris would appear directly overhead from the North Pole

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The new moon rises at sunset, and sets at sunrise.
False The new moon rises at sunrise and sets at sunset. The full moon rises at sunset and sets at
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From first quarter moon to third quarter moon takes about a week.
False. From first quarter to third quarter takes about two weeks.

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At apogee the moon is at its farthest from earth and thus appears smaller than normal. Because
of this it can produce only annular solar eclipses, but not total solar eclipses.

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Which of the choices below correctly lists things in order from largest to smallest?
Universe, Local Group, Milky Way, Solar System

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While watching the Moon, you see it moves 15 degrees across the sky. How long have you been
watching it?
1 hour

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Which statement about Right Ascension is FALSE?

A)Its origin is the Vernal Equinox.
B)It is measured eastward in units of time.
C)Each hour is equal to 15 degrees of sky.
D)It is very similar to latitude on the Earth. (It is similar to longitude.)
E)It turns the sky into a vast 24 hour clock face.
It is very similar to latitude on the Earth. (It is similar to longitude.)

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The place the Sun stops its northward motion along the ecliptic is the:
Summer Solstice

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Which statement about the length of a day is FALSE?
A)At the North Pole, the day lasts six months, then six months of night.
B)For the United States, the longest day occurs on or about June 21.
C)The sidereal day includes both the Earth's rotation and revolution around the Sun. (The
solar day includes both; the sidereal day only includes the Earth’s rotation.)
D)At the equator, every day is twelve hours long, then twelve hours of night.
E)The solar day is four minutes longer than the sidereal one.
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Oh, and the answer is
C)The sidereal day includes both the Earth's rotation and revolution around the Sun. (The
solar day includes both; the sidereal day only includes the Earth’s rotation.)

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A year is defined as
the time it takes for Earth to complete an orbit around the Sun.

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That Polaris will not always be the pole star is due to
precession shifting the celestial pole.

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If you are in the Moon's umbral shadow, then you will witness
A total solar eclipse

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Why is there a two day difference in the sidereal and synodic months?
The Earth is also revolving around the Sun, so the Moon must "catch up".

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When the Moon is at a right angle (90°) to the Sun in the sky, its phase is
first or third quarter.

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In Ptolemy's geocentric model retrograde motion is explained by the Earth catching up and
passing a planet.
False. This is how heliocentric models explain retrograde motion. In Ptolemy’s geocentric model,
retrograde motion is explained by the planet moving on a small circle (the epicycle) which moves
around a large circle (the deferent).

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Galileo's observations of sunspots proved the Sun was rotating, like the Earth.

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As originally stated, the Copernican model did a better job of predicting planetary behavior
han did the Ptolemaic one.
False. They were equally able to predict planetary behavior. Neither model agreed with Tycho
Brahe’s observations.

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Kepler based his theories on the precise planetary observations of Tycho Brahe.

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It the size of a planet were doubled while its mass remained constant, its surface gravity would
become four times stronger
False. Since the force of gravity is inversely proportional to distance, the planet’s surface gravity
would be 22 = 4 times weaker.

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The Ptolemaic model of the universe:
explained and predicted the motions of the planets with deferents and epicycles.

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Which of the statements below is part of both the Ptolemaic and Copernican models?
A)Epicycles are needed to explain retrograde motion of the planets.
B)The Earth orbits the Sun once a year.
C)The Sun lies in the center of the Cosmos.
D)The Moon orbits the Earth once a month.
E)Venus' epicycle must always lie between us and the Sun.
The Moon orbits the Earth once a month.

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It took two centuries for the Copernican model to replace the Ptolemaic model because
there was no scientific evidence to support one model over the other until Galileo made
his observations.

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Which of the following is a contribution to astronomy made by Galileo?
A)The Moon has craters, mountain, valleys, and dark flat areas on its surface.
B)The astronomical telescope can show us far more detail than the eye can.
C)Jupiter has four moons orbiting it.
D)Venus appears almost fully lit when it lies on the far side of the Sun.
E)all of the above
All of the above

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Kepler's first law worked, where Copernicus' original heliocentric model failed, because Kepler
described the orbits as
elliptical, not circular.

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Kepler's second law implies what about planetary motion?
A planet moves faster when it is closer to the Sun.

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What does Kepler's third law imply about planetary motion?
Planets further from the Sun orbit at a slower speed than planets closer to the Sun.

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The force of gravity between two objects:
increases with the masses of the objects, but decreases with the square of the distances
between them.

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According to Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation, if the Moon were three times further from
Earth, the force by Earth on the Moon would
decrease by a factor of 9.

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Escape velocity is the speed required to
overcome the gravitational pull of an object.

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The solar system contains eight major bodies called planets and thousands of smaller bodies
including comets and asteroids

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Astronomers have not yet been able to detect planets outside our solar system.

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Terrestrial planets have low mass and low density.
False. Terrestrial planets have low mass and high density.

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All terrestrial planets have global magnetic fields.
False. Mars and Venus don’t have global magnetic fields.

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All the jovian planets have rings.

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Which planet by itself contains the majority of mass of all the planets?

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Planetary orbits
are almost circular, with low eccentricities.

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How do the densities of the jovian and terrestrial planets compare?
All terrestrials are more dense than any of the jovians

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Which of the following are the jovian planets?
Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune only

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Which characteristic listed below describes the jovian planets?
low density

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Most asteroids are found:
between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.

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The difference between a meteoroid and an asteroid is the object's

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Which of the following have an icy composition?

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The Kuiper Belt is found where in the solar system?
beyond the orbit of Neptune

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As the solar nebula contracted due to gravitation, the cloud...
spun faster and formed a disk.

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Seismic waves give us information about Earth's interior.

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The hydrosphere covers about 50% of the Earth's crust.
False. It covers over 70% of the Earth’s crust

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Earth is the only planet in our solar system that has large amounts of oxygen in its atmosphere.

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The ozone layer blocks much of the Sun's infrared radiation.
False. It blocks much of the Sun’s ultraviolet radiation.

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In noting that Earth is "differentiated," we mean that:
the iron and nickel core is denser than the silicate mantle and crust

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What gas is the primary constituent of our atmosphere?

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Without the greenhouse effect operating in our atmosphere,
The oceans would freeze.

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When two tectonic plates collide:
they continue moving, producing a variety of large deformations.

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Within Earth's atmosphere, in which layer does weather occur?
the troposphere

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The Cascade volcanoes are due to
a denser oceanic plate being subducted under a continental plate.

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Mercury has the widest variation in surface temperatures between night and day of any planet
n the solar system.
True (due to its lack of atmosphere and slow rotation).
The orbit of Mercury is more elliptical than that of any other terrestrial planet.
The scarps on Mercury are extremely similar to the cratered lunar highlands in appearance.
False. The scarps are giant cliffs, completely unlike the heavily cratered lunar highlands.
Most of the Moon's craters are due to volcanism.
False. Most are impact craters.
Mercury is very hard to observe from Earth because:
B)it never gets more than 28 degrees from the Sun's glare.
Mercury's surface most resembles that of which other body?
What is true of the lunar highlands?
They are the oldest part of the lunar surface.
Which statement about the rotations of the Moon and Mercury is FALSE?
A)On Mercury, three days exactly equal two years.
B)On the Moon, each "day" lasts about 15 earth days of constant sunlight.
C)Our Moon is in a 1:1 synch with the Earth, keeping the same side toward us.
D)Mercury is in the 3:2 synch with the Sun, with the same side Sunward at perihelion.
E)Like our Moon, Mercury does not rotate at all, keeping the same side facing the Sun.
E)Like our Moon, Mercury does not rotate at all, keeping the same side facing the Sun.
The average rate of erosion on the Moon is far less than on Earth because
the Moon lacks wind, water and an atmosphere.
How does Mercury's magnetic field compare to our own?
It is 1/100th as strong as ours, but does deflect the solar wind to some degree.
Comparing the densities of the Moon and Mercury, we find:
the Moon's is similar to Earth's crust, while Mercury's is similar to the entire Earth.
The youngest features visible with telescopes on the Moon are:
the craters sitting atop the mare.
The scarps on Mercury were probably caused by
the interior cooling and shrinking.
Which of these theories seems to best explain the Moon's origin?
A)Capture Theory
B)Fusion Theory
C)Coformation Theory
D)Fission Theory
E)Impact Theory
Impact Theory
What did Galileo discover about the moon?
It has mountains and craters
Where are most asteroids found?
Between the orbits of mars and jupiter.
The orbits of the planets are perfect circles in which model(s)?
Copernicus and Ptolemy
Earth is the center of the solar system in which model(s)?
Which model(s) agreed with Tycho Brahe's observations of the positions of the planets?
Planets only appear to move backwards in which model(s)?
What is the most abundant gas in Earth's atmosphere?
What property of Mercury leads us to believe it has a very large core?
its density
According to plate tectonics, where are ocean trenches found?
subduction zones; where one plate moves under another.
What are the youngest features on the Moon that are visible with telescopes?
the craters on the maria
What is one way astronomers locate objects in the sky?
constellations; celestial coordinates
which planets have widely spaced orbits?
Jovian planets
Which planets have high density and low mass?
Which planets have solid surfaces?
Which planets have rings?
What protects Earths surface from particles in the solar wind?
the magnetosphere
What is the dark side of the moon?
the side that faces away from the sun
According to plate tectonics, where are rift zones?
where plates move apart
What is the declination of the north celestial pole?
90 degrees
Which theory of the Moon's origin agrees best with the observations?
impact theory
Which terrestrial planets do not have moons?
Mercury and Venus
According to Kepler, what shape are planetary orbits?
What protects Earth's surface from ultraviolet radiation?
the ozone layer
Why is it difficult to view Mercury from Earth?
Mercury is always close to the sun.
According to the dynamo theory, which part of Earth's interior generates its magnetic field?
its liquid outer core
How long does it take a star to move 15 degrees across the sky?
1 hour
If the mass of an object were doubled, what would happen to its gravity? Be specific.
it would double
Which planet has the most eccentric and tilted orbit?
According to plate tectonics, what is one thing that can happen when plates collide?
crumple and form mountain ranges; one can slide under the other (subduction)
Why does Mercury experience extreme differences in temperature between day and night?
It has no atmosphere
What are the places where the Sun crosses the celestial equator called?
the equinoxes
In what part of a planet's orbit does it move the fastest?
when it is nearest the sun (perihelion)
What is an extrasolar planet?
a planet that is not in our solar system
What would Earth be like without the greenhouse effect?
much colder, frozen oceans
How do we know that the lunar highlands are older than the lunar maria?
the highlands are more heavily cratered than the maria; radioactive dating of lunar rocks
What motion of the Earth causes the celestial poles to shift?