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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Unifying traits
1. Prevalence of Islam and Islamic institutions
2. Predominance of Arabic language
3. Historical, political, and artistic threads that link the various Arab communities
Adhan
-Islamic call to prayer 5x a day.
-Served a religious purpose and was not considered music
Zajal
-Introduced by Moorish Spain
-Used the colloquial idiom of the Iberian Peninsula under the Moors
Muwashashah
-Primarily in classical Arabic and had an elaborate stanzaic form that distinguished it from the classical Arabic poem
-Often uses sproadic colloquialisms and added expressions like LALLI AND AMAN
Takht
Small instrumental ensemble comprised of an 'ud, qanun, nay, violin, and riqq
Saltana
An ecstatic state which they experience before or during a performance and which is directly linked to the modes. The modal ethos overpowers musicians and empowers them to excel.
Tarab
An ecstatic feeling evoked by music as a whole; this is the musical emotion that a truly inspired modal performance will produce in a listener.
Bashraf
-Ottoman origion
-Metric and precomposed; has a form like a rondo: verse-like passages alternating with a refrain-like component
Sama'i
More prevalent among Arab performers (also of Ottoman origion). But has a ten-beat pattern for all but the last "verse" Section
Wasla
-Egyptian for "stretch" or "connection" of the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
-Compound structure abandoned after the 20s.
-Internal flow of the wasla entailed an effective accumulation of creative modal ecstasy
Firqa
-Larger ensemble including the takht instruments
Muhammad 'abd al-Wahhab
-Wrote songs for Umm Kulthum that moved a more vernacular or popular style: short meters and popular sounding melodies.
-His music evolved into cater to mass tastes rather than diehard tarab enthusiasts
Rahbani brothers
-Musical plays with plots derived from village life and dialogue
-Their music represents familiar modes and metric vocab but has novel sonorities and instrumental blend.
Rahbani instruments
-Drums like the riqq and the tabla and a lyrical backdrop of strings playing in the well-coordinated, streamlined style of European classical orchestras
-Their songs pay great attention to orchestral detail
-Use romantic ritual imagery, songs in Lebanese colloquial or classical Arabic
Ziyad Rahbani
-Fayrouz's son, his songs, instrumental pieces, and theatrical works have combined traditional mainstream devices with components of folklore with Western Classical and popular musics/traditional jazz
Alexander Maloof (CD 2, Trk 1)
-From Syria; known as a pianist, composer, leader
-Adapted Western techniques and aesthetics to their own cultural repertoire
-Fatima references Western constructs of form, harmony, and orchestration
-Played in Carnegie Hall and welcomed by Einstein
Gebrauchtsmusic
-Music for use by amateur performers by Maloof for Syrian immigrants by publishing five volumes of original compositions and songs from the homeland for piano performance
Dulab
A brief introductory piece that introduces the maqam
Raks Arabi
-Arabic Dance
-Oriental style solo dance
-30 years after this recording was made the belly dance that captivated America was in full bloom with Middle Eastern nightclubs
-Eclectic music of these nightclub ensembles was based on prototypes such as this
SAMAI'I
Sama’i: OF OTTOMAN ORIGIN: More prevalent among Arab performers; its form is similar to that of a bashraf, but it has a ten-beat pattern for all but the last “verse” section
DULAB
• Important in Takht repertoire. Dulab: A short precomposed instrumental piece that functioned as a prelude to the performance proper (like a qasida).
Taqasim
Taqasim: Instrumental improvisations
Mawwal
mawwal: vocal improvasition on a poetic text sung in colloquial Arabic.
Layali
Layali: Improvised vocalization on a few syllables (ya layl usually) usually leading to a mawwal
Firqah
DISTINGUISHING FEATURES FROM TAKHT TO FIRQAH:
-Size, makeup and leadership
-Now has a chorus, string basses,
-Not as much part of the cafe culture; just in big concert halls now
-Rise of radio and song-films
Heterophony
HETEROPHONY: One of various musical textures, heterophony is a kind of complex monophony - there is only one melody, but multiple voices each of which play the melody differently, either in a different rhythm or tempo, with different embellishments and figures, or idiomatically different.
Samai
The samai composition demonstrates the 10/8 rhythmic mode
Mehter
Ottoman military bands are thought to be the oldest variety of military marching band in the world. Though they are often known by the Persian-derived word mehter (مهتر) in the West, that word, properly speaking, refers only to a single musician in the band. In Ottoman Turkish, the band was generally known as mehterân (مهتران, a plural of mehter), though those bands used in the retinue of a vizier or prince were generally known as mehterhane (مهترخانه, meaning roughly, "a gathering of mehters"). In modern Turkish, the band as a whole is often termed mehter takımı ("group of mehters").
Davul and Zorna
The davul is the Turkish name for a type of two-sided frame drum found in the Middle East and Balkan Europe.
-In Turkey, the davul is most commonly played with the zurna, although it can be played with other instruments and in ensembles as well. It has also traditionally been used for communication and for Turkish mehter, or janissary music.