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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the sacral promontory
Superior anterior portion of sacrum
What is the sacral hiatus
An opening at the most inferior portion of the sacrum
Represents failure of S5 laminal closure
Where do you give a sacral epidural nerve block (caudal analgesia)
In the sacral hiatus
What are the sacral cornua
Inferior articular processes S5, project inferiorly bilaterally on each side of sacral hiatus

**Guide pts for sacral anesthesia
When does the pelvic bones ossify and fuse completely
By 20 yo
Which ligament divides the greater and lesser sciatic foramen
Sacrospinous ligament
What ligaments in the pelvis are the 1st to become symptomatic with SD
Iliolumbar ligaments
What muscles make up the pelvic diaphragm
Levator ani (puborectalis, pubococcygeus, iliococcygeus)
Coccygeus muscle
Origen and insertion Piriformis m.
Inferior anterior aspect sacrum
Greater trochanter
Function of the piriformis m.
External rotation
Extend thigh
Abd thigh when hips is F
Piriformis is innervated by
S1 & S2
Iliopsoas origen & insertion
Psoas - T12-L5 & lesser trochanter
Iliacus - Iliac crest, fossa, sacral ala, anterior SI ligament & Inferior to the lesser trochanter
P - L1-3
I - L2 & L3 (femoral n.)
Lumbar plexus: levels, m innervation, sensory
Innervates abd & thigh m
(iliopsoas, quads, add grp, sartorius, gracilis)
Sesory to thigh, buttock, lower abd, pubic area
Sacral plexus: levels, m. innervation, sensory
L4-5, S1-3 and some S4
Motor & sensory to pelvis & LE
PSNS - L colon & pelvic organs
Sciatic nerve
via greater sciatric notch below piriformis
What lumbar SD can be caused by a F contracture of Iliopsoas
L1 or L2
F, SB & R same side as contracture
Inherent motion of the sacrum
Axis through S2
Cranial E = sacral F (nutate)
Respiratory motion of the sacrum
Axis through S2
Inhalation = sacral E
Postural motion of the sacrum
F of torso = sacral base posterior (E)
Dynamic motion of sacrum
Step forward with foot 1 = oblique axis on side of foot 2

(axis engaged on side of wt bearing)
L5 rotation = ____sacrum
opposite rotation
L5 SB = _____ sacrum
Engages ipsilateral sacral oblique axis
Standing flexion tests for?
Seated flexion tests for?

Seated (NO LE testing)
If pt has good spring in sacrum, what does that mean for the spring test
ASIS compression test, tests for
Pubic symphysis
S/S anterior innominate rotation
Hamstring tightness, sciatica (d/t piriformis)
S/S posterior innominate rotation
Groin pain and/or medial knee pain (d/t sartorius)
S/S superior innominate shear
Pelvic pain or contralateral SI joint pain and/or low back pain
S/S inferior innominate shear
Pelvic pain or contralateral SI joint pain
S/S Superior pubic shear
Tender inguinal area w or w/o dysuria or frequency
S/S inferior pubic shear
Pelvic or SI joint pain
S/S innominate inflare
Dysuria and/or freq (sometimes)
S/S innominate outflare
Pelvic or SI joint pain
What does anterior sacrum mean
Sacrum is F and SB opposite of R
What does posterior sacrum mean
Sacrum is E and SB opposite of R
S/S bilateral sacral F
Low back pain that worsens w/ backward bending
Who is prone to bilateral sacral F
Postpartum Females
S/S Bilateral sacral E
Low back pain that worsens w/ forward bending