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32 Cards in this Set

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Bleeding d/o with prolonged aPTT and abnormal bleeding time
von Willebrand disease

(most common inherited)
Clotting factors that are Vit K dependent
2, 7, 9, 10

Deficiency prolongs PT
What affects
-bleeding time
-PT
-aPTT
-TT
-platelet function
-extrinsic & common pathway
-intrinsic & common pathway
-common pathway
Why is G6PD deficiency a/w anemia
Hemolysis during excessive ROS
(viral infection, fava beans, sulfa drugs, quinine, nitrofurantoin)
Heinz bodies
Significance of cold antibodies
IgM (0-4 C)
-mycoplasma pneumonia
-mononucleosis
-lymphoma

(Raynaud's)
Cause of megaloblastic anemia
Hypochromic, macrocytic anemia

Deficiency
Folate (anemia only)
B12 (anemia & neurological symptoms)
Plummer-Vinson syndrome
Anemia
Atrophic gastritis
Esophageal webs
Fanconi Anemia
AR
hypoplastic thumbs
Absent radi
Aplastic anemia
Significance of:
-heinz bodies
-howell-jolly bodies
-basophilic stippling
-siderocytes
-reticulocytes
-G6PD deficiency
-Post-splenectomy
-lead poisoning
-Fe overload (Pannenheimer bodies)
-increased RBC production, recovery from hemorrhage
Causes of drug-induced neutropenia
Alkylating agents
Chloramphenicol
Chlorpromazine
Sulfonamides
Phenylbutazone
ALL
Children
-fever
-petechiae
-echymosis
-CNS infiltrate

Px good
AML
Any age
-fever
-petechiae
-ecchymosis
-lymphadenopathy (splenomegaly)

Px depends
Auer Rods
CML
Young adult
-fever
-night sweats
-splenomegaly

Px poor
Philadelphia Chromosome (c9,22: bcr:abl)
CLL
Elderly
-insidious
-few symptoms
-low Ig level
-infection

Px fair
Hairy Cell Leukemia
HSM
Pancytopenia

Px poor
Disease a/w Reed-Sternberg cells
Hodgkin's disease
-spread contiguity
-No leukemic component
Multiple Myeloma
malignant
IgG or IgA

-osteoclast activating "punched out" lesions
-Bence-Jones protein (amyloidosis)
Monckelberg's Arteriosclerosis
Media calcific stenosis
"gooseneck lumps"
small & medium arteries
asymptomatic
What do macrophages turn into a/w arteriosclerosis?
Foam cells
"fatty streaks"
Arteritis a/w temporal a.
Giant Cell Arteritis

-sudden blindness
-F > M
-a/w polymyalgia rheumatica
Type of aneurysm found in
-abd aorta
-ascending aorta
-aorta (A or D)
-circle of willis
-cerebral/retinal
-atherosclerotic
-syphilitic
-dissecting (Marfan)
-berry (congenital & a/w PKD)
-micro (HTN & DM)
Heart sound - continuous murmur & machine-like
Patent ductus arteriosus
(kept open by PGE2 & PGI2)
Defects seen in TORCH
(toxoplasmosis, rubella, CMV, herpes)
-Cardiac
-microcephaly
-auditory & visual defects
Tetrology of Fallot
#1 cyanotic (R --> L shunt)

-pulmonary a. stenosis
-overriding aorta
-VSD
-RV hypertrophy
Prinzmetal's angia
At rest
ST elevation

Tx- CCB
Post-MI: time period most susceptible to myocardial rupture
1-2 wks post MI
(soft, yellow granulation tissue)

3-7 d (resorption of dead myofibrils)
Consequences of RHF
Increased venous pressure
-edema
-liver congestion "nutmeg liver"
-ascites
Differentiate Infective Endocarditis
Acute vs. Subacute
Acute: S. aureus, Strep, Janeway lesions, high fever, hematuria

Subacute: S. viridans, G - bacilli, Roth spots, Osler nodes, low grade fever
Key features fibrinous pericarditis
Transmural MI
Dresslers syndrome: delayed (2-10 wk after), d/t autoAb
Tx - steroids
Major Jones criteria
-polyarthritis
-erythema
-subQ nodules
-chorea
-carditis
Acute Rheumatic Fever
1-4 wk post tonsilitis w/ grp A beta hemolytic Strep

5-15 yo
--> Rheumatic HC (Mitral valve)
Low FRC & TLC
Obstructive lung disease
-emphysema
-chronic bronchitis
-asthma
-bronchiectasis
Low FRC & VC & TLC
Restrictive lung disease
-ARDS
-Pneumoconiosis
-Hypersenstivity pneumonitis
-Goodpastures
-Pulmonary hemosiderosis
-Alveolar proteinosis
-Eosinophilic pneumonia
-Diffuse idiopathic fibrosis
-Collagen vascular d/o