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49 Cards in this Set

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What is the respiratory quotient
CO2 release/O2 uptake
RQ < 0.7
Hypoventilation
(DM or fasting)
RQ > 0.7
Hyperventilation
< 7.35, Increased CO2: what is this? causes?
Respiratory acidosis

sediation
sleep apnea
chest wall injury
COPD
< 7.35, Decreased HCO3: what is this? Causes?
Metabolic acidosis

Ketoacidosis
Lactacidosis
Chronic diarrhea
> 7.45, Decreased CO2: what is this? Causes?
Respiratory alkalosis

Anxiety
Thyrotoxicosis
Mountain climbing
> 7.45, Increased HCO3: what is this? Causes?
Metabolic alkalosis

Loop diuretics
Thiazides
Vomiting
What acid-base distrubance with salicylate intoxication?
Early - meta. acid & resp. alka

Late - meta. acid & resp. acid
What globlin chains are found in fetal hemoglobin
Alpha 2
Gamma 2
What globin chains are found in adult A hemoglobin
Alpha 2
Beta 2

(98%)
What globin chains are found in hemoglobin A2
Alpha 2
Delta 2

(2%)
What globin chains are found in a-thalassemia
HbH - Beta 4
Hb Bart - gamma 4
What globin chains are found in beta-thalassemia
HbF - alpha 2, delta 2
HbA2 - alpha 2, gamma 2
What things would cause a right shift in the O2 binding curve
Increased protons (acidosis)
Increased CO2
Increased 2,3 - DPG
Increased temp
What causes the closure of the ductus arteriosus
Prostaglandins
Normal GFR & how to measure
125 mL/min

Inulin or creatinine clearance
What clearance = GFR what is occuring
Filtration only

(or secretion = resorption)
Hyperosmolarity causes what
Thirst
ADH release
Blood volume loss causes what
Sympathetic activation
Renin release from JGA
What releases ACE enzyme
Lungs
What is Bartter's syndrome
High renin
High angiotensin
High aldosterone
Normotensive (??down regulation Ang R)
Where are the JG cells located
Specialized smooth m. afferent arteriole
Release renin
Where are the macula densa cells located
DCT

Measure NaCl concentration
Where are carbohydrates absorbed
Duodenum & Jejunum

(also amino acids)
Where is iron absorbed
Duodenum
Where is Vit B12 absorbed
Terminal ileum

(also bile salts)
What is iron transported as? Stored?
Transferrin

Ferritin & Hemosiderin
Gastrin results in what?
HCl
Motility
Delayed stomach emptying
Gastrin stimulated for release by what?
Vagus n
Peptides, alcohol, alkaline pH stomach
Secretin stimulated for release by what?
Acidic pH in duodenum
Secretin causes the release of what?
HCO3 pancreatic secretion
CCK is stimulated for release by
Fat & peptides in duodenum
CCK causes the release of what?
Pancreatic enzymes
GB contraction
GIP is stimulated for release by
Glucose, fat in duodenum
GIP causes the release of what?
Insulin secretion
Somatostatin is stimulated for release by what
Acidic pH in stomach
What does somatostatin result in
Inhibits HCl secretion
Inhibits enzyme secretion
What do chief cells secrete
Pepsinogen
What do parietal cell secrete
HCl
Intrinsic factor
What is CONN
Hyperaldosteronism
-K depletion
-HTN (No edema)
-No hypernatremia
-weakness, tetany
Motor development
-1 month
-chin up
Motor development -2 months
-chest up
Motor development -6 months
-knee push & 'swim'
Motor development -7 months
-sits alone / stand w/ help
Motor development -8 months
-crawls on stomach
Motor development - 10 months
Stands holding on furniture
Motor development 11 months
Walks when led
Motor development 14 months
Stands alone
Motor development 15 months
Walks alone