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71 Cards in this Set

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What are the names of the acid-fast stains?
-Kinyoun

-Fite

-Ziehl-Neelsen

-Auramine-rhodamine
What is the genus name for the bacteria identified with acid-fast stains?
Mycobacteria
What color signifies a positive result for acid-fast?
red
What stain is responsible for staining leprosy organisms?
Fite acid-fast stain
What color is the background stained with acid-fast stains?
blue
What are the steps of the acid-fast stain?
-carbol fuchsin

-wash well with running water

-differentiate with acid alcohol

-wash with running water

-counterstain in methylene blue

-rinse with water, dehydrate and coverslip
What does the Gram stain differentiate between?
gram postiive and gram negative organisms
What step must be added to the fite acid-fast stain?
tissue must be placed in xylene-peanut oil solution to deparaffinize in order to protect the leprosy capsule
If one overstains with the methylene blue counterstain in acid-fast stains, how can the excess color be removed?
differentiate in 95% alcohol or decolorize in acid-alcohol and restain
What color do gram positive organisms stain with the Gram stain?
blue or violet
What color do gram negative organisms stain with the Gram stain?
red
What are the steps of the Gram stain?
-Crystal violet

-Gram's iodine

-Safranin or basic fuchsin
What stains are used to detect H. pylori?
-Diff quick

-Giemsa

-Alcian yellow/toluidine blue

-Steiner
What stains are used to detect spirochetes?
-Steiner

-Warthin-Starry
What stains detect fungi?
-Grocott's methenamine silver-nitrate

-PAS with green
What color does H. pylori stain with the Diff quick stain?
blue/violet
What color is a positive result for H. pylori with the Giemsa stain?
dark blue
What color does H. pylori stain with Steiner?
black
What color do spirochetes stain?
black
In the PAS-green stain what color do fungi stain?
pink to fuschia
In the Grocott's methenamine-silver (GMS) stain, what color do fungi stain?
black
What reagents are use in the Kinyoun stain?
Carbol-Fuchin (basic fichin, phenol, alcohol)
filtered water
methylene blue
acid alcohol
What type of water must be used in the Kinyoun stain and why?
Filtered water because acid- fast organisms exist in tap water
If the acid is not washed out in acid fast stain___
the counterstain will not work
Fite procedure shows______
Mycobacterium leprae
Fixation is what will make acid fast organisms non acid fast?
Carnoy
What stain uses peanut oil and what is it good for?
Fite stain... prevented tissue shrinkage
Whst dye is used in the Fite stain?
Ziehl Neelsen dye
Can the Ziel Neelsen or Kinyoun stain detect leprosy?
no
What does the Fite stain detect?
Mycobacterium leporsy and Nocardia
What detects "Mycobacterium Tuberculosis /
acid fast mycobacterium"?
Auramin-Rhodamine Fluorescence
What is the counterstain for Auramine-Rhodamine?
Eriochrome Black
What color are the acid fast organisms in Auramine-Rhodamine stain?
reddish-yellow fluorescence
What does the Borwn-Hopps demonstrate?
gram negative and gram positive bacteria
What is the differentiating solution in Brown Hopps
Acetone and Gallego
What are the results of Brown Hopps and which dye is rfesponsible for it?
Gram + blue (crystal violet iodine)
Gram - red (basic fuchsin)
background yellow (picric acid acetone)
Which method also detects actinomycosis, nocardiosis, coccidiomycosis, blastomycosis, cryptococcosis, aspergillosis, rhinosporidiosis and amebiasis
Brown- Hopps
Which stain uses Diff-Quick?
Giemsa
What type of staining reaction occurs in the Giemsa stain?
metachromatia
What is the principle of the Giemsa stain?
methylene blue + eosin
basic pH
Results of Giemsa
bacteria- dark blue
cytoplasm pink
What stain detech Helicobacter pylori?
Giemsa
Alcian Yellow Toluidine
Diff Quick II contains:
methylene blue
Diff Quick I contains:
eosin
What diseases are associated with H pylori?
Gastritis
Peptic Ulcer
Gastrocarcinoma
Lymphoma
What are the reagents in Alcian Yellow?
Periodic Acid
sodium metabisulfite
Alcian Yellow
Toluidine Blue
Steps of Hotchkiss McManus PAS
Periodic Acid
Schiffs
sulfuric acid
Fast Green
chromic acid oxidizes the carbohydrates in the fungus walls to aldehydes in which stain?
Chromic Acid PAS
Which satin uses Periodic acid as an oxidizer?
Hotchkiss
What is Auramine-Rhodamine made up of?
auramine
rhodamin
glycerol
phenol crystals
Staphylococcus aureus
Responsible for toxic shock.
Pathogenic cocci
Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria gonorrhaeae and Neisseria meningtidis.
Material responsible for Gram positive organisms
Contain teichoic acid in cell wall. Responsible for Gram positive differentiating qualities.
Gram positive bacilli
Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium tetani, Corynebacterium diphtheriae.
Gram negative bacilli
Shigella dysenteriae, E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Spirochetes
Treponema pallidum (syphilis), Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease).
Acid fast organisms
Contain a large amount of lipid in the cell wall. ie Mycobacterium leprae and tuberculosis.
Cell wall of fungus
Contains chitin.
Molds
Filamentous fungi containing hyphae forming a mycelium with septa or transverse partitions. ie Aspergillus fumigatus.
Yeast
Parent-budding process. ie Crytoccocus neoformas.
Pseudohyphae
Budding occurs but buds tend to elongate and not detach from parent. ie Candida albicans
Kinyoun Stain
Carbol-fuchsin, dilute acid alcohol, methylene blue.
Ziehl-Neelsen Stain
Carbol-fuchsin, dilute acid alcohol, methylene blue.
Fite Stain for Leprosy
Weakly acid fast organism. Waxy capsule must be protected from strong clearing agents, so deparaffinizing is done by xylene-peanut oil solutions.
Brown-Hopps
Gram stain technique. Crystal violet, Gram's iodine, acetone decolorizer, basic fuchsin, Gallego's solution for differentiation.
Warthin-Starry
Spirochetes stain. Silver nitrate + Acidulated water (Citric acid+DI water, to pH 4) solution for silver impregnation. Developer composed of silver nitrate, gelatin, hydroquinone (reducer).
Diff Quik Giemsa Stain
Demonstrates H. pylori by Solution I, a eosin Y (anionic dye) which stains cytoplasm PINK, Solution II azure A and methylene blue (cationic dye) stains bacteria and nuclei BLUE.
Hotchkiss-McManus
Fungus stain using the PAS method.
Gridley Fungus Stain
Fungus stain using the PAS method but uses chromic acid instead of periodic acid which is a much stronger oxidizer. Less background because fungus contains heavy amount of polysaccharides in comparison to connective tissues.
Grocott Methenamine-Silver Nitrate Fungus stain
"GMS" uses chromic acid to oxidize polysaccharides to aldehydes.
Nonspecific staining of silver soln may occur...
When silver solution is overheated (>60 C).