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39 Cards in this Set

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who did a study on the relationship between stress and cardiovascular disorder?
Krantz et al 1991
who did a study on the relationship between stress and the imune system?
Kiecolt-Glaser et al1995
who did a study on life changes as a source of stress?
Rahe et al 1970
who did a study on workplace stressors?
Marmot et al 1997
who did a study on the biological studies of annorexia nervosa?
Holland et al 1988
who did a study on the psychological causes of annorexia nervosa?
Becker 1999
who did a study on the biological causes of bulimia nervosa?
Kendler et al 1991
who did a study on the psychological causes of bulimia nervosa?
Cutts & Barrios
who did a study on majority influence?
Asch 1956
who did a study on minority influence?
Moscovici et al
who did a study on obedience to authority?
Milgram
who did a study on prison officers and prisoners?
Zimbardo
'The relationship between stress and cardiovascular disorders'- Aim
to investigate the extent to which mental stress could be shown to increase myocardial ischemia/ if patients with CHD react differently to those without CHD
'The relationship between stress and cardiovascular disorders'- procedures
39 patients, 12 controls, preformed stroop test, arithmetic task and public speaking task, measured blood pressure & extent of ischemia
'The relationship between stress and cardiovascular disorders'- findings
CHD patients showed highest ischemia & blood pressure in mental tasks. Control showed lowest. Intermediate had moderate or no ischemia and moderate blood pressure
'The relationship between stress and cardiovascular disorders'- Conclusion
direct link between doing a mildly stressful cognitive task and physiological activity that can harm the cardiovascular system. However there are also important individual differences.
'The relationship between stress and cardiovascular disorders'- crticism, ethical issues
is creating mild stress acceptable? especially with cardiovascular patients. however they did have informed consent and the stress was no greater than can be experienced in everyday life
'The relationship between stress and cardiovascular disorders'- criticism, validity
although there was a control on no cardiovascular patients there was not a 'not stressed' control. the patients may have had high bp and ischemia normally.
'The relationship between stress and the imune system'- aims
to demonstrate the direct effects of stress on the immune system by looking at how quickly a wound heals
'The relationship between stress and the imune system'- participants
Matched participant design, volunteer sample, experimental group-13 women (aged 47-81) were carers. Control group- 13 matched on age and income (not marital status)
'The relationship between stress and the imune system'- proceedures
participants given punch biopsy 3.5mm just below the elbow. All the wounds were dressed and treated in the same way by a nurse. Also levels of cytokines were measured and had to do a 10 item percieved stress scale.
'The relationship between stress and the imune system'- findings
healing in carers took on average 9 days longer(24%) than control. cytokine levels lower in carers. carers percieved themselves to be more stressed.
'The relationship between stress and the imune system'- crticism (aplications)
important implications for treating peopleh infections (especially recovering after surgery)
'The relationship between stress and the imune system'-criticism (sampe bias)
matching was inexact. more cares were married (social support) and non-smokers which lowers stress. therefore the carers should have had good imune functions (strenghtens validity)
'The relationship between stress and the imune system'- conclusions
chronic stress depresses the functions of the immune system. the lower levels of cytokines in carers show chronic stress affects imune system directly.
'Life changes as a source of stress'- aims
to use the SRRS to test Holmes and Rahe's hypothesis-number of life events positivley correlates with illness on 'normal' people (not ill in hospital)
'Life changes as a source of stress'- participants
oppertunity sample of 2,700 individuals, all men, on US navy cruisers
'Life changes as a source of stress'- procedures
a milatary version of SRRS was given to men to complete before tour of duty (noting life experiences in last 6 months). Illness score calculated on number, type, severity of all illness during the tour (7 months). Did not include visit trying to skip work.
'Life changes as a source of stress'- findings
Positive correlation between LCU score and illness score. correlation coefficient of +0.118
'Life changes as a source of stress'- conclusions
supports hypothesis of +correlation between life changes and physical illness. Therefore life changes may be a source of stress. Positive and negative events were used proving it is the overall psychic energy required that creates stress
'Life changes as a source of stress'- criticism (unreliable data)
It is possible that the men did not recall events accurately (e.g may have repressed negative memories or might not recall when it took place)
'Life changes as a source of stress'- criticism (is the SRRS a valid measure)
the SRRS is criticised for only looking at acute stress rather than chronic, does not distinguish desirable and undesirable, does not account for social resources. This may explain the weak correlation
'A study of workplace stressors'- aims
to test the job-strain model. looking into the effects of high demand and low control
'A study of workplace stressors'- participants
civil service employees, men and women, 7,327 participants
'A study of workplace stressors'- procedures
answer a questionnaire and checked for signs of cardiovascular disorder. 5yrs later participants were reassesed. Recorded- signs of cardiovasucular disease (e.g chest pains), coronary risk factors (e.g smoking) employment grade, sense of job control (questonnarie) and social support (questionnaire)
'A study of workplace stressors'- findings
participants in highest grades had fewer cardiovascular problems. low grade participants expressed weaker job control and social support. also risk factors could partially explain cardiovascular problems.
'A study of workplace stressors'- conclusions
low control is linked with high stress and cardiovascular disorder whereas high demand isn't. this does not fully support job strain model as only low control appears to be linked with stress and illness.
'A study of workplace stressors'- crticism (socio-economic status)
people with lol ses are more likely to smoke, live more stressful environments and have poorer diets. all of which lear to cardiovascular problems. therefor may be due to ses not low control
'A study of workplace stressors'- biased sample
only used cicil servants. all urban dweller who are probably quite job orientated and ambitious compared to rural areas. studies have shown abitious people are greater effected by workplace stressors