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107 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are injectable general anesthestics used for?
Induction for intubation & maintenance on gas, induction & maintenance by repeated injection.
Definition of an inhalant general anesthetic?
Agents mixed with oxygen for administration.
What can cyclohexamines cause in dogs and horses?
How are inhalants delivered & removed from the patient?
Through the respiratory system. Airway-lung(alveoli)-blood-brain.
What do cyclohexamines need to be used with in dogs and horses?
What are advantages for using inhalants?
Rapid uptake & elimination. Deeper anesthesia & better muscle relaxtion w/ less resp depression than injectables.
What are 3 types of cyclohexamines?
Ketamine, Tiletamine, TKX
What's a disadvantage for using inhalants?
They require special equipment & training of personnel.
How do cyclohexamines work?
They cause dissociative anesthesia or catalepsy, selective CNS stimulation, disruption of nerve pathways in the brain, perception & awareness is scrambled.
What are 3 factors which can affect the delivery of inhalation agents to the lungs?
Vapor pressure, Tidal volume, Respiratory rate.
Are cyclohexamines a good analgesia?
Good for skin & limb, not for visceral.
What is vapor pressure?
The tendency to escape the liquid state & become a vapor. Agents w/ high vapor pressure require an out of circuit precision vaporizer.
Do cyclohexamines cause necrosis when given IM?
No, it stings but no necrosis.
What determines the amount of anesthetic agent administered per minute to the patient?
Tidal volume X respiratory rate.
What are some characteristics of cyclohexamines?
Exaggerated reflexes, persistant laryngeal reflexes, a sensitivity to light/sound/touch, increased muscle tone & rigidity.
What are 2 factors which can affect the blood and tissue(brain) uptake of anesthetic?
Solubility and Second gas effect.
Do cyclohexamines increase/decrease salivation?
How does solubility affect the uptake of anesthesia?
The less soluble the gas in blood the faster it leaves the blood to enter the brain or alveoli.
Do cyclohexamines increase/decrease heartrate?
How does the second gas effect affect the uptake of anesthesia?
Adding a second gas takes up space in the alveoli, concentrating the primary anesthetic agent.
Do cyclohexamines increase/decrease blood pressure?
Does the second gas effect speed up/slow down the primary agent's entry into the blood.
Speeds it up. Means a faster induction & recovery.
What do cyclohexamines do in regard to the patients eyes?
The eyes stay open, pupils are central & dilated.
What 2 factors can affect the elimination of anesthetic agents from the body?
Tidal volume & recovery. The percent of drug redistributed to tissues
Which classification of drugs causes apneustic respiration?
What does increasing the tidal volume & respiratory rate (ventilation) do for the patient?
It speeds up recovery.
What is apneustic respiration?
Breath holding after inspiration, with a quick expiratory phase.
What does MAC stand for?
Minimal Alveolar Concentration
What are some contraindications of cyclohexamines?
Dogs or horses w/out tranquilizers, seizure disorder or history, renal disease or blockage, hepatic disease in dogs, procedures involving CNS.
Define the MAC.
The concentration of drug needed to anesthetize 50% of patients to a specific painful stimulus.
What is the maintenance level?
1.5-2.0 X MAC
What should you avoid during recovery from cyclohexamines?
Don't stimulate the patient (reduce light & sound, touching).
What are 3 types of inhalant anesthetics?
Halothane, Isoflurane, Sevoflurane.
What might happen during a patients recovery from cyclohexamines?
"hallucinatory" behavior possible - pawing at face, fight or flight behavior.
What do you maintain halothane at?
What do you need to make sure to do with the patient during recovery from cyclohexamines?
Monitor them closely to prevent self injury.
What does halothane sensitize the heart to?
The effects of epinephrine
Are cyclohexamines controlled drugs?
Is halothane a good analgesia?
What type of drug is ketamine?
What inhalant would you use for birds, geriatric and critical care animals?
What type of drug is tiletamine?
Which inhalant has the fastest induction and recovery?
What type of drug is TKX?
Does halothane or isoflurane have a faster induction & recovery?
What is the most commonly used cyclohexamine?
Is Nitrous oxide an anesthetic?
No, it's used for analgesia and 2nd gas effect.
How is ketamine administered?
IV only in dogs
IV or IM in cats
What do you maintain isoflurane at?
What happens if the IM dose of ketamine is given IV?
Serious overdose or death.
What do you maintain sevoflurane at?
How is ketamine eliminated from the body?
Renal (kidney) in cats and hepatic (liver) in dogs.
What do you need to do when using nitrous oxide?
Combine 2:1 with oxygen.
What type of tranquilizers are used with ketamine?
Acepromazine, diazepam, xylazine.
Does nitrous oxide have a fast induction & recovery time?
What is tiletamine sold in conjunction with?
What color cylinder is nitrous oxide in?
A blue one.
What is the mixture of tiletamine and zolazepam called?
Is nitrous oxide a vapor?
No, it's a gas.
In what form is telazol sold?
It's a powder which must be reconstituted.
What can occur when using nitrous oxide?
Diffusion hypoxia
Does telazol have a long/short shelf life?
Short, 4 days room temp, 14 days refrigerated.
What do you do to counteract diffusion hypoxia when using nitrous oxide?
Leave patient on high O2 flow for at least 5 mn after nitrous oxide is turned off.
How is telazol eliminated?
Through hepatic metabolism and renal excretion.
What are 4 types of inhalation setups?
Open, Semi-open, Semi-closed, Closed.
Is telazols onset & duration similar to ketamine?
Describe an open inhalation system.
No rebreathing, no circuit. No reservoir bag (can't ventilate). No CO2 absorber.
What is the onset of ketamine?
90s IV, 2-4 mn IM, 5-10 mn orally
Describe a semi-open inhalation system.
Used for animals 15lbs or less. No rebreathing, no circuit. Reservoir bag and valve (can ventilate).
What is the recovery time of ketamine?
2-6 hours depending on route & patient.
Describe a semi-closed inhalation system.
Rebreathing. Reserior bag. CO2 absorber. Popoff valve.
What is TKX?
Describe a closed inhalation system.
Rebreathing. Same as semi-closed, but popoff valve is closed. Pressure builds up in circuit - patient cannot breath out.
What is the duration of TKX?
20-30 mns.
What type of inhalation system is a Bain apparatus or Ayre's T-piece?
It's a semi-open
Are substituted phenols controlled?
What type of inhalation system do we use at school?
What is a substituted phenol?
What class of drug is propofol?
A substituted phenol
Does propofol have a long/short shelf life? Why?
Short - 6 hrs refrig. Because it can support bacterial growth.
How does propofol come?
It's a milky oil-water emulsion.
What route is propofol administered?
IV only
How is propofol administered?
Slow injection over 20-60 seconds in order to prevent apnea.
How is propofol administered for maintenance use?
IV drip or injections every 3-5 mns.
How is propofol eliminated from the body?
Through redistribution & metabolism - it has a very fast recovery.
What are barbiturates used for?
Induction, maintenance, anticonvulsant, & euthanasia.
How do barbiturates come?
They come as a kit w/ powder form of drugs & sterile water.
What do you need to do after reconstituting a barbiturate?
Refrigerate & discard if cloudiness & crystallization occurs.
Are barbiturates a good analgesia?
How do barbiturates work?
Through dose-dependant CNS depression. Sedation-anesthesia-coma-death.
How are barbiturates eliminated from the body?
Through liver metabolism, which is dependent on the liver enzyme level.
What may cause a greater percent of the barbiturates to be active?
When the animal is acidotic (shock, renal failure) or blood plasma is low.
What route are barbiturates administered?
IV only
How are barbiturates administered (method)?
Titrate to effect
Describe titrating to effect.
Give 1/2 dose, then 1/2 or remainder and so on.
What happens if a barbiturate is administered perivascularly?
Causes tissue necrosis and sloughing.
What should you do if a barbiturate is administered perivascularly?
Inject sterile saline SC in equal amount of barbiturate.
What may occur after post-induction of barbiturates?
Apnea and arrythmias.
Which class of drug sensitizes the heart to arrhythmic effects of epinephrine?
What are some contraindications for using barbiturates?
Cardiovascular or respiratory disease, acidosis, CNS depression, sighthounds, fearful or agitated animals, geriatrics, neonates, C-sections, thin or in poor nutritional condition.
What are two types of barbiturates?
Thiopental, Pentobarbital
What type of drug should not be used in sighthounds?
Which has a shorter onset thiopental or pentobarbital?
Which is more commonly used thiopental or pentobarbital?
Which has a narrow margin of safety, thiopental or pentobarbital?
Which has a shorter duration thiopental or pentobarbital?
Which is used for anesthesia on a seizuring patient if diazepam in ineffective - thiopental or pentobarbital?
Pentobarbital - it's a anticonvulsant.