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102 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are some elective reasons for doing a ovariohysterectomy?
Prevent heat cycles; decreased risk for mammary tumors; no risk for pyometra & uterine cancer; fewer behavioral problems; no risk for pregnancy; pregnancy termination.
What are some non-elective reasons for doing a spay?
Pyometra; uterine/ovarian cancer; mammary cancer.
What are some contraindications for doing a spay?
Breeding animal; too young; anesthetic risk; late pregnancy; combining with a non-sterile surgery.
At what age can you perform a spay?
Prior to first heat, approx. 5 mths in cats & 6 mths in dogs; pre-puberal gonadectomy as early as 6-8 wks.
What are some complications of a spay?
Ligature slips off uterine or ovarian vessels; Von Wilebrand's dz, bladder irritation; peritonitis; infection; dehiscence.
What is Von Wilebrand's disease?**
A clotting disorder seen in several dog breeds: dobermans, german shepards & welsh corgis.
When are sutures removed from a spay?**
7-14 days.
What should you check on an incision during recovery?
Check daily for redness, swelling, discharge or excessive licking.
What are some client instructions for the animal after a spay?
Restrict activity for 48 hrs; suture removal; check incision daily; don't bath until sutures are removed.
What are some reasons for canine castration?
Prevent breeding; decrease undesirable male behaviors; prevent some forms of prostate dz; prevent testicular dz; make a better pet.
At what age do you usually perform castration (canine & feline)?
6-9 mths, but can be as young as 6-8 weeks.
What do you do pre-op for a canine castration?
Clip from prepuce to margin of abdominal skin & scrotal skin & extend widely; do not clip hair on scrotum.
What are some complications of castration?
excessive licking/tearing out sutures; hemorrhage; scrotal hematoma; infections; clipper burn.
What is cryptorchid?
One or both testicles has not descended into the scrotal sac.
Is being cryptorchid more common in dogs or cats?
What can occur when an animal is cryptorchid?
They have an increased risk for testicular cancer.
What are some reasons for performing a feline castration?
Get rid of the "tom cat" odor; decrease spraying; same as canine.
What do you do pre-op for feline castration?
General anesthesia; pluck hair off of scrotum; surgical scrub/rinse.
What are some complications of feline castration?
Scrotal bleeding, swelling; infections.
What are some client instructions for a feline castration?**
Check incision daily; use shredded paper in litter box for 5-7 days.
At what age is ear cropping done?
8 weeks to 6 months.
At what age is tail docking (caudectomy) done?
1-5 days old.
At what age are dewclaws removed?
1-5 days old.
What are some reasons for performing a declaw?
Decrease damage to animals, people & property; usually only front feet.
What are removing when you perform a declaw?
What are some complications for a declaw?
Neuritis from tourniquet; pain; bleeding; infection; nail regrowth; chronic pain; behavior changes; abnormal stance on feet.
What are some client instructions for a declaw?
Shredded paper or yesterdays news for 5-7 days; keep off high places to prevent jumping down.
Why would you do a c-section?
Dystocia; can't deliver normally: too large a fetus w/ too small a pelvis; fractured pelvis; uterine inertia; certain breeds.
What is a contraindication to a cesarian?
Vet must diagnose type of dystocia, some will respond to medical therapy.
What else might the vet do after doing a c-section?
Spay the animal.
Do you want a light or heavy plane of anesthesia for a c-section?
Light - for minimal neonate suppression.
What anesthetic induction agent might you use for a c-section (doesn't cause resp. depression).
What anesthetic maintenance agent would you use for a c-section?
Isoflurane - rapid induction/recovery.
What should you have on hand for the neonates during a c-section?
Emergency drugs, towels, warming devices, sutures.
What do you do for the neonates after a c-section delivery?
Rub with towel to dry & stimulate resp; reverse narcotic w/naloxone; aspirate mouth; keep warm; use er drugs as needed; check & tie umbilicus; place with bitch asap; send home asap.
What are some complications to a c-section?
Infection; pups chewing on sutures; respiratory depression.
What are some client instructions following a c-section?
Watch pups closely for adequate nursing & growth. Watch bitch/queen for care of neonates, discharge, depression.
What is lochia?
Normal cleaning out of mother after giving birth.
When are most sutures removed after a surgery?
7-14 days.
What is pyometra?
Put in the uterus.
What are some signs of pyometra?
Anorexia; lethary; PU/PD; vomiting; +/- discharge.
What is closed pyometra?
Cervix is closed & pus accumulates in uterus.
What is open pyometra?
Cervix is open & pus can drain.
What can happen if the uterus ruptures?
It can be fatal - pyometra is a toxic, emergency situation.
What is the treatment of choice for pyometra?
What is feline perineal urethrostomy (PU)?
A recurrent urethral obstruction in Male cats (dietary management & other therapies have made the procedure less common).
Is anesthesia used for ear cropping?
Is anesthesia used for tail docking?
No, done in pups 1-5 days old.
Is anesthesia used for dewclaw removal?
No, done at 1-5 days old.
What is removed during a dewclaw removal?
Entire P1
How do you perform a feline perineal urethrostomy?
Elliptical incision around prepuce & scrotum, incise urethra & pass catheter, continue incision cranially & suture skin to urethral mucosa.
What's another name for anal gland ablation?
Anal gland removal.
What animal is anal gland ablation usually performed on?
Ferrets (descenting).
What is an abscess?
A localized collection of pus (neutrophils) & bacteria inside a fibrous capsule.
What are some complications when draining an abscess?
Premature drain removal by animal; recurrence of abscess; sepsis.
What is an aural hematoma?
Hematoma on the ear.
What are some characteristics of an aural hematoma?
Hemmorrhage in the pinna forma a sanguinous seroma; tends to occur in certain breeds/individuals; may be secondary to ear mits, allergies, infections & foreign bodies.
What's the goal in treating an aural hematoma?
To drain the seroma; have ear layers heal together; prevent recurrence.
What do you remove when removing a benign tumor?
Just the tumor mass itself.
What do you remove when removing a malignant tumor?
You want to remove wide margins of "normal" tissue, if possible.
What are some common tumors seen in small animal practices?
Mammary; lipoma; mast cell tumor; squamous cell carcinoma; thyroid adenoma (gland tumor); perianal gland adenoma.
What age animal are mammary neoplasias usually seen in?
In older, intact dogs/cats; or in animals spayed late in life.
What age animals are lipomas usually seen in?
Older, overweight animals.
How can you tell a mass is a lipoma?
When aspirated droplets of oil form on the slide that look like corn oil; they don't dry.
Are lipomas usually benign or malignant?
Benign, although there is a malignant form.
How do you differientate different mast cell tumors?
They are graded I, II, or III - based on likelihood to metastasis.
What grade mast cell tumor is most likely to metastasize?
Grade III.
What type of solution do you use when doing surgery on the eye?
Dilute betadine solution &/or sterile saline. Do not use chlorhexidine or alcohol.
What nerve can be activated by manipulating the eye?
The vagus nerve, which activates the parasympathetic nervous system (increases salivation, tear secretions).
What do you do when you do a nictitating membrane flap placement?
Pulling up of the 3rd eyelid to cover the corneal surface.
How you perform a nictitating membrane flap placement?
Use a horizontal mattress suture is placed through the 3rd eyelid & the upper lid, usually using a quill to reduce pressure.
What's another name for nictitating membrane flap placement?
3rd eyelid flap.
What's a prolapsed gland of the 3rd eyelid?
Cherry eye.
What is enucleation?
Taking out the eyeball.
What are some complications to enucleation?
Swelling; hemorrhage; infections; dehiscence; draining tracts; sunken appearance; optic nerve damage to remaining eye.
What is proptosis?
Protusion of the globe from the orbit with associated muscle & nerve damage.
What does -otomy mean?
to open (cut into)
ex. gastrotomy
What does -ecotmy mean?
to remove
ex. colonectomy
What does resection mean?
to partially remove
ex. part of the lung
What does anastomosis mean?
To reattach free ends.
ex. intestinal resection & anastomosis.
What does stenosis mean?
A narrowing or stricture of a canal or lumen
ex. pyloric stenosis.
What do you need to do when working with the intestines & other organs?
You need to keep them moist, use sterile saline.
Are the intestional lumen contents sterile?
No, anything that comes into contact with those areas are contaminated.
When working with the intestional lumen the surgeon will need what when suturing them up?
A second set on instruments, because the ones used for the actual surgery are not sterile.
What is cerclage wire used for?
To tie up fractures.
What's one of the most common neurological diseases in dogs?
Intervertebral disk disease.
What surgery is performed for intervertebral disk disease.
Dorsal laminectomy or hemilaminectomy.
What is an articular fracture?
A fracture through a joint.
What is a comminuted fracture?
3 or more fracture lines which interconnect.
What is an open fracture?
A fracture which penetrates the skin - you can see it.
What is an epiphyseal (psalter) fracture?
A fracture line which involves a growth plate.
What is a greenstick fracture?
An incomplete fracture.
What is a transverse fracture?
A fracture line which is perpendicular to the long axis of the bone.
What is an oblique fracture?
A fracture line which is at an angle to the long axis of the bone.
What is a spiral fracture?
A fracture line which spirals up the bone shaft.
What is a multiple fracture?
3 or more fracture lines which don't interconnect.
What is an impacted fracture?
A fracture due to compressive forces.
What is a stable fracture?
The fracture does not displace under force (transverse).
What is an unstable fracture?
The fracture displaces easily under force (oblique).
What is a luxation/dislocation?
A separation or change in the relationship of the articular surfaces of bones.
What joints are most frequently involved with a luxation/dislocation?
Synovial joints.
What is cranial cruciate ligament repair?
Knee repair.