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41 Cards in this Set

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Where do you give a horse an IV injection?
In the right jugular vein (side opposite to esophagus) in case of tissue reaction.
When giving a horse an IV injection into the jugular what could signify that you're in the carotid instead?
The blood keeps on flowing from the hub. It stops when you're in the jugular.
What drugs are used in horses for sedation & standing chemical restraint?
Acepromazine, alpha2 agonist - either alone or in combination.
Characteristics of using acepromazine in horses.
Onset is 15-20 mns, duration ~90 mns. May result in the horses inability to retract penis, leading to paraphimosis.
What are 2 alpha2 agonists used in horses?
Xylazine, detomidine (dormosedan).
What are the effects of ace & alpha2 agonists on the horse?
Sedation, analgesia, skelatal muscle relaxation - head hangs down, lips & eyelids droop.
What do you use sedation & standing chemical restraint in horses for?
Minor surgery.
What is field anesthesia?
Using injectables to achieve light general anesthesia with recumbency.
What drugs do you use for field anesthesia in horses?
Xylazine followed by ketamine. You may also administer Guaifenesin, diazepam & butorphanol - but give after xylazine & before ketamine.
Where would you place a horse when using field anesthesia?
A flat surface, with good footing, clean, free from hazards, noise & traffic.
What are guaifenesin's properties?**
Muscle relaxant; smooths induction & recovery; given by IV infusion; reconstituted as 5% or 10% concentration in 5% dextrose.
What precautions should you take when anesthetizing a horse?
Use soft lead rope; hold horse's head up to avoid hitting ground; place towel under head & over eyes; knell on horses neck behind to head to prevent sudden lifting; stay of opposite side of legs; up leg caudal, down leg cranial.
How do you monitor a horses anesthetic depth?
**Strong palpebral & corneal reflexes will be present; monitor pulse, resp, muscle tension, alert vet to increases; spontneous eyelid movement & nystagmus often present.
What should you do for the horse during recovery?
Provide plenty of time in sternal position; do not stimulate; support head w/ halter & rope; don't stand in front of horse; don't try to support horse's body from side.
When would you use inhalant anesthesia for a horse?
For a procedure that lasts longer than 30 mns or requiring dorsal recumbency.
What do you need to do to a horse before inhalantion induction?
Rinse the oral cavity to remove food particles.
What inhalant equipment is needed for a horse? Size bags
Mechanical ventilator; <300lbs needs 5L bag; >300lbs needs 15-30L bag;
24-30mm trach tubes
Do you use a laryngoscope to tube a horse?
No, it's blind.
What can you do to prevent post-procedural myopathy?
Use 6+ inches of padding under dorsal surface; prevent extreme abduction (lat movement) of legs; in lateral recum use padding to keep 'up' legs parallel to floor.
What type of monitoring do you use for horses in anesthesia?
Blood pressure (catheter in metatarsal, facial or auricular artery); capnography (measures CO2, from gas in trach tube)
What position is most cattle surgery done in?
Standing, using sedation, local analgesia and physical restraint.
What are 3 concerns with cows during anesthesia?
Bloat, reguritation & aspiration (they have excessive salivation).
What can you do to decrease regurgitation in cows?
Need a cuffed endotrach tube & keep head & mouth lower than neck in lateral recumbency.
What can you do to decrease bloat in cows?
Fast for 48 hours before. If it occurs, place in sternal recumbency and trocarization may be necessary.
What can be done to decrease the amount of salivation in cows?
Atropine in contraindicated - it thickens secretion but doesn't significantly decrease the amount.
What is used for sedating cows?
Xylazine & acepromazine.
Do you use more or less xylazine in cows than in horses?
Much less - it's 1/10. Cattle are very sensitive.
What induction agents do you use in cows?
Ketamine, telazol & thiopental.
Do you usually need to use a sedative with cows?
No, recoveries are not rough.
What maintenance agents do you use with cows?
Triple drip of guaifenesin/ketamine/xylazine mixture. Inhalants.
When do you extubate a cow?
When swallowing reflex returns.
What large animal is sensitive to Alpha-2 agonists?
Small ruminants - us xylazine.
What are some challenges with swine for anesthesia?
They have few accessible veins; thick body fat - need 1.5" needle for IM injection; difficult to restrain.
Where do you give swine an IM injection?
Caudal to ear, 2" off midline.
What anesthestic drugs do you use in swine?
Acepromazine/morphine; medetomidine/butorphanol; TKX.
Is intubation easy or difficult in swine?
Difficult, because of the anatomy of the larynx and the inability to visualize.
What can inhalant anesthetics cause in swine?
Porcine stress syndrome/malignant hyperthermia.
What's the most commonly used local anesthetic used in large animals?
Lidocaine
What are some toxic reactions in large animals when using lidocaine?
CNS effects (restlessness, twitching, seizures, unconsciousness); circulatory effects (bradycardia, hypotension).
What can you do to reduce lidocaine toxicity?
Limit the total dose & add vasoconstrictors (epinephrine, phenylephrine) to delay absorption.
How is lidocaine administered to large animals?
Topical, Inverted L infiltration, Nerve blocks, Regional nerve blocks, IV regional anesthesia, caudal epidural.