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49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Three types of functional joints
Synarthrotic
Amphiarotic
Diarthrotic
Synarthrotic
Immobile (dense regular fibrous)
Amphiarthrotic
Somewhat moveable (mostly cartliage)
Diarthrotic
Fully moveable (synovial)
Three types of joint structures
Fibrous
Cartlaginous
Synovial
What kind of structure is a fibrous joint
It is synarthrotic - immobile
What kind of structure is a Cartilaginous joint
It is Amphiarthrotic - somewhat moveable
What kind of structure is a Synovial joint
It is Diarthrotic - fully moveable
Fibrous Joint
Collagen fibers emerge from the matrix of one bone and penetrate into the matrix of another.
List the three types of Fibrous Joints
Sutures
Syndesmosees
Gomphoses
Sutures
binds the bones of the skull, stitched together, they are not moveable - fibrous
Syndesmosees
tied or wrapped joint. Joints at which two bones are bound by a ligament only - fibrous
Gomphoses
the attachment of a tooth to a socket in the madible or maxilla. - fibrous
Synchondroses
held together by hyaline cartilage.. ie, attachment of rib to sternum - cartilaginous
Symphyses
held together by fibrocartilage.. ie, pubic symphysis - cartilaginous
Synovial Joint
a joint in which 2 bones are separated by a space that contains a slippery lubricant called synovial fluid
Structure of a synovial joint
articular cartilage
joint cavity
articular capsule
synovial membrane
synovial fluid
fibrous membrane
tendon sheath
meniscus
bursa
Synovial Fluid
rich in albumin and hyaluronic acid, gives a slippery texture. It nourises the articular cartilage and removes their waste, it contains phagocytes that clean up the tissue debris
Tendons
attach muscle to bone
Ligaments
attach bones to bones
Bursa, meniscus
fibrous sac filled with synovial fluid, distribute shock over surface, absorbs impact
Types of Motion
plane/gliding
hing
pivot
ellipsoid or condyloid
saddle
ball and socket
Abduction
movement of a body part away from the midsaggital line
Adduction
movement toward the midsaggital line (returns body to anatomical position)
Flexion
decreases the angle of a joint
Extension
straightens a joint and generally returns body to anatomical position
Hyperextension
extension of a joint beyond 180 degrees
Medial Rotation
movement toward the midline
Lateral Rotation
sideways movement to the right or left
Circumduction Rotation
movement in which one end of an appendage remains stationary while the other end makes a circular motion
Pronation
forearm or foot, faces downward
Supination
forearm or foot, faces upward
Inversion
unique to the feet, soles are turned medially
Eversion
unique to the feet, soles are turned laterally
Protraction
movement of a bone anteriorly (forward) on a horizontal plane
Elevation
movement that raises a bone vertically
Depression
movement that lowers a bone
Oppostition
movement of a thumb to approcach or touch fingertips
Elbow (describe joint)
Hinge joint, 2 articulations (1 humeroulnar joint and 1 humeroradial joint)
Annular ligament, encircles the head of the radius and attaches at each end to the Ulna.

Radial and Ulnar co-lateral ligaments, restrict side to side movements of the elbow.
Shoulder (describe joint)
AKA Humeroscapular or Glenohumeral Joint**
Most freely moveable joint of the body and the most injured.

Coracoacromian ligament - coracoid process of scapula to the acromian process of the scapula.

Coracohumeral Ligament - coracoid process of the scapula to the greater tuburcle of the humerus
Hip (coxal joint)

(describe joint)
Head of femur inserts into the acetabulum of the os coxae.

Ligamentum teres - weak ligament but has an artery that supplie blood to the femur.
From the fovea capitis of femur and attaches to the acetabulum.

illiofemoral, ischiofemoral and pubicfemoral ligaments support the coxal joint.
Knee (describe joint)
Tibiofemoral joint**

Hinge joint
lateral and medial menisci
fibular and tibial co-lateral joints
anterior and postier cruciate ligaments
patellar ligament/quadriceps tendon
R
I
C
E
Rest
Ice
Compress
Elevate
Joint Injuries
Cartilage injuries are slow to heal

Sprains/subluxations - torn ligaments or tendons, sometimes with damage to the meniscus or other cartilages

Dislocations/luxations - displacement of a bone from its normal position at a joint
Bursitis/Tendonit
inflamation
Arthritis
inflamation of the joint
Osteoarthritis
most common with old age, symtoms go away after things are warmed up. Treated with aspirin
Gouty Arthritis
uric acid crystals, heredity, common in men, defect in protein metabolism
Rheumatoid Arthritis
common in young women, autoimmune disease, WBC attach cartilage, for pain need to reduce mast cells to give ibuprofen