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80 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Antecedent events
stimulus eventes presented during just prior to a response
behaviros the clinicians has targeted for the client
consequent events
events that occur following a particular response (reinforcement/punishment)
stimulus generalization
when a learne response to a particular stimulus is evoke by a simular stimulus
the context of phonologic remediations refers to the cont. and persistent use of responses learned during instruction.
to elicit target behaviors from a client and tehn stabilize such behaviors at a voluntary level.
stbilize an facilitate retention of those behaviors acquired druring the establishment and generalization phases. take out of clinic to see if can maintain.
rewarrd when moving closer to target-rewarding successive approximation. shape from errored sound to target.
traditional approach
motor oriented, progresses from the speaker's id of error producionts to estab. of correct production them moves to generalize and maintain.
Types of generalization
One sound to another in same sound class, across word positions (teach initial /s/, final /s/ emerges), across words (teach /sat/ correct product. of sun)
Transfer and carryover
use target in unstructured conversation, self monitoring, games, creating stories, establish maintenance
time period for targeting all necessary processes, varies in length depending on # of processes, carryover not expected in 1st cycle, keep cycle moving despite success/failure
How cycling works
give phonological test, analyze data, choose target process, choose phonemes to target process, go through cycle, retest, revise/plan new cycle, repeat
One cycling session
audiotry bombardment, create own picture, experimental play, review target phoneme (auditory bombardment), probe for stimulability for next session.
Selection of ind. phonemes
choose meaningful words, monosyllabic w/ facilitating phonetic environ, variety of word classes, app. vocab level.
Choosing linguistic approach
recommended when there are multiple sound errors. Phonological processes.
Choosing traditional approach
Only used when there are few errors/distortion of sound
neuromotor disorder(stroke), all speech systems may be affected, probs w/ resonation, artic, respiration/phon, slow, weak move.,slurred
CNS-prefrontal area, decreased motro speech program, little/no weak, motor precision affected, artic. affected, substitution/add.
Fixed-ratio schedules
response is reinforced only after a specified number of responses.
Variable-ratio schedules
response is reinforced after an unpredictable number of responses. Gambling and lottery games are good examples
Fixed-interval schedules
the first response is rewarded only after a specified amount of time has elapsed
Variable-interval schedules
occur when a response is rewarded after an unpredictable amount of time has passed. This schedule produces a slow, steady rate of response.
Something causing or regarded as causing a response.
resonant in the nasal cavity of more than just nasal consonants due to velopharyngeal incompetance
lack of resonant in the nasal cavity. due to blockage of nasal cavity
Auditory bombardment
procedure in which the client is provided with intensified, repeated, systematic exposure to multiple exemplars of phonological targets and contrasts.
Choosing phoneme
Which process, interfere w/ intell. inconsistently used, first supressed, stimulability, one's that block other process, idiosyncratic.
Important people w/ approches
behavior approach-pavlov and skinner. Traditional approach-Van Riper. Linguistic approach Blache Mc Reynolds Hodson and Paden
Sound approximation/shaping
move someone closer to target-shape errored sound-place cues to shape w/ other phonemes.
Distinctive feature
binary approach-teach contrast teach features by teaching half of target sounds.
slow motion speech
works best w/ cont. sounds. slowly produce target work as model.
paired stimuli
find a word that the child can say pair that word w/ a target can't stay-high success w/ new target. can say sit- then sat, sun, etc.
target response/word
Ask child to imitate speech
echo speech
like a round
Behavior approach
types of cues
associational cue-descrimptive/semantic pnemic cue-providing initial phoneme
Goal setting
must be measurable and observable, woh, what, how/where, accuracy, when-period of time.
multiphomemic approach
all phonemes that are errored in intial position produce phoneme five times-target more than one phoneme per session
principle of behavior therapy
reward immediately, attn: while in session (pair together), small steps, reward focuss of session, fixed continous schedule.
Traditional artic therapy components
phonetic placement, moto kinesthetic, stimulus, integral stimulus, sensory motor,
phonetic placement
part of trad. what is the correct position of the aritc. and correct use of breath stream.
part of trad. breakdown syllables, word, phrase may move mouth into correct postition to produce sounds.
core of trad. focus on single errored sound, ear training, sound level, syllable level.
integral stimulation
part of trad. production carefully select sounds base on what stimulable for target.
sensroy motor
part of trad. coosing a sound context utilization-find child can produce /s/ in sun, facilitative context-center around how sound is formed.
Ulitmate goal of behavior therapy
self reinforcing-reward is success.
trad. therapy basic
can start at any level, can work w/ any position, use only if a few errors, use only if distorted, good for some clients w/ organic disorders
target selection traditional
age, stimuability, consistency of error, interfer w/ intell?, freq of sound in lang., individuals partic. needs,visibility of sounds
course of trad therapy
sensory/perceptual, production level training (sound)production training(stabilization), transfer and carryover
perceptual training
Part of course trad therapy
develop auditory model make sound over and over while naming
Part of course trad therapy, say word w/ sound ask if they heard sound within word
Part of course trad therapy, id sound from different ways-person, intensity, freq. core of trad. focus on single errored sound, ear training, sound level, syllable level.
Part of course trad therapy, say wrong and correct can id which is correct.
Production level training
part of trad. therapy stimulus, auditory stimulation, facilitate context, phonetic placement, motokinestetic, sound approximation.
Phonetic placement
cue or instruct client where to place articulators to produce a sound
clinician present an instructional even, followed by client responses. client has little control
percieved as play, but clinician arranges activities so that target responses occur naturally during activity.
perceptual training
identification, isolation, stimulation, discrimination
discrimination training
part of perceptual training-determine if two sounds are the same or diff.
Minimal pairs contrast
part of perceptual training, have clients determine difference between. minimal pairs.
context utilization
sounds are not procduced in siolation, but in syllable based context, certain phonetic context may facilitate use of target sound
code switching
changing the way one speaks depending on who they are speaking to.
regional, ethnic group/culture, social class. no one dialect is superior, however one may have a higher social prestige
become creoles when passed to the next generation, more complex rules are present.
phonological awareness
someone's ability to id the specific units of langueage.
metalinguistic skills
talk about talking-manipulate lang.
Phonological awarness tests
Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing, Test of Phonological Awareness, Phonological Awareness Test
of or relating to a language that arises from contact between two other languages and has features of both
criterion reference test
child's performace in comprehensive to a curriculum based standard
dynamic assessment
child's performace is response to a variety of cues and prompts
rapid automized naming test, how efficient a decoder is child, sound matching, rapid picture naming
emergent literacy
the reading and writing behaviors that precede and develop into conventional literacy,
used in phonological awarness test: Do these words rhyme? what rhymes with cat?
break sentences into words, words into syllables, syllables into phonemes.
onset and rime
the onset, which consists of the initial consonant or consonant blend, and the rime which consissts of the vowel and any final consonants.
blending/phonetic synthesis
bring together sounds that are presented separate
phonemic manipulation
add and delete phonemes
Tenants of linguistic approach
Underlying linguistic basis to phonological disorder - (in the mind)
Must learn rules for sets of phonemes and how they are combined into words
Multiphonemic approach
Best for multiple errors - non organic basis
Generalization will occur