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### 75 Cards in this Set

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 WHAT IS SHAPE? THE EXPANCE WITHIN THE OUTLINE OF A TWO-DIMENSIONAL AREA, OR WITHIN THE OUTER BOUNDARIES OF A 3-D SHAPE. POSITIVE OR FIGUE SHAPES THE SUBJECT OF DOMINANT SHAPES ON A PICUTE PLANE VANTAGE OR VIEWPOINT A SINGLE FIXED PERSPECTIVE IN WHICH AN ENTIRE PICTURE CAN BE CONSTRUCTED. ALEXANDER CALDER A LEADING INVENTOR OF KINETIC SCULPTURE AND ONE OF THE FIRST 20TH CENTURY ARTISTS WHO MADE MOVEMENT A MAJOR FEATURE OF THEIR ART. (1950) Georgia O'Keefe was a painter who mastered what? The use of color and space NEGATIVE OR GROUND SHAPES THE SUBJECT OR DOMINANT SHAPES ON A PICTURE PLANE. HENRY MOORE SCULPTOR WHO BROUGHT ABOUT THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MASS AND SPACE. HE DID THIS BY PUTTING A LARGE WHOLE THROUGH THE FIGURE ALLOWING SPACE TO FLOW THROUGH, AS WELL AS, AROUND IT. ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE ALL THE MAJOR RECEDING LINES OF THE SUBJECT ARE ACTUALLY PARALLEL, YET VISUALLY THEY APPEAR TO CONVERGE AT A SINGLE VANISHING POINT ON THE HORIZON LINE. LINEAR PERSPECTIVE REFERS TO POINT OF VIEW, AND REFERS TO ANY MEANS OF 3-DIMENSIONAL OBJECTS IN SPACE ON A 2-D SURFACE. What does line mean to artistic conception? Line is our basic means for recording and symbolizing idea, observations and feelings. It is a primary means of visual communication. What are some characteristics of lines? They can be active or static, agressive, or passive, sensual or mechanical. They indicate directions, define boundaries, imply volumes, and suggest motion or emotion. What is crosshatching? It is the shading from light to dark with parallel crossed lines. The density of the line changes with the degree of shading on the subject. Define Implied Line Implied line suggests visual connections. They form geometric shapes and can serve as an underlying organizational structure. What are geometric shapes. They are shapes like circles, triangles, and squares. They are precise and regular. FIGURE-GROUND REVERSAL a PHENOMENON WHERE OUR AWARENESS SHIFTS AND WE ARE NOT SURE WHAT IS FIGURE AND WHAT IS GROUND BECAUSE THEY HAVE TRADED PLACES. SPACE THE UNIDENTIFIABLE, GENERAL RECEPTACLE OF ALL THINGS THAT IS INFINITE AND AND EVER PRESENT. TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE TWO SETS OF PARALLEL LINES APPEAR TO CONVERGE AT TWO POINTS ON THE HORIZON LINE. WHAT IS MASS THREE DIMENSIONAL AREAS ARE REFERRED TO AS MASS PICTURE PLANE THE ACTUAL SPACE OF EACH PICTURES SURFACE DEFINED BY ITS EDGES--USUALLY THE H X W. IMPLIED MASS LIGHT AND SHADOW CAN CREATE THE ILLUSION OF MASS. DIMINISHING SIZE HAVING TO DO WITH OUR PERCEPTION OF DISTANCE. THE MOST BASIC METHOD USES OVERLAPPING TO ACHEIVE THE EFFECT OF DEPTH ON A FLAT SURFACE. VOLUME WHEN MASS ENCLOSES SPACE IT IS CALLED VOLUME OR "FORM." (WHEN REFERRING TO PHYSICAL BULK). VERTICLE PLACEMENT A THIRD METHOD OF ACHIEVING THE ILLUSION OF DEPTH. OBJECTS PLACED LOW ON THE PICTURE PLANE APPEAR TO BE CLOSER TO THE VIEWER THAT THE OBJECTS PLACED HIGHER ON THE PLANE. CLOSED FORM FORM THAT DOES NOT OPENLY INTERACT WITH THE SPACE AROUND IT. LINEAR PERSPECTIVE REFERS TO POINT OF VIEW, AND REFERS TO ANY MEANS OF 3-DIMENSIONAL OBJECTS IN SPACE ON A 2-D SURFACE. OPEN FORM ART THAT REACHES OUT AND INTERACTS WITH THE SURROUNDING SPACE. VANISHING POINT THE HORIZON LINE. THE PLACE WHERE LAND AND SKY APPEAR TO MEET. ON A PICTURE PLANE, THE HORIZON LINE REPRESENTS YOUR EYE LEVEL AS YOU LOOK AT THE SCENE. ATMOSPHERIC OR AERIAL PERSPECTIVE A NONLINEAR MEANS FOR GIVING AN ILLUSION OF DEPTH. IT IS CREATED BY CHANGING COLOR, VALUE, AND DETAIL. COLOR INTENSITY IS DIMINSHED, AND CONTRAST BETWEEN LIGHT AND DARK IS REDUCED. VALUE SOMETIMES CALLED TONE. REFERS TO THE RELATIVE LIGHTNESS AND DARKNESS OF SURFACES. CHIAROSCURO THE SUBTLE SHIFT OF LIGHT AND SHADE THAT REVEAL FORMS. CHIARO=LIGHT OR CLEAR, OSCURO MEANS DARK OR OBSCURE. ACHROMATIC BLACK, WHITE, AND THEIR COMBINATION, GRAY. (WITHOUT PROPERTY OF HUE) HUE REFERS TO A PARTICULAR WAVELENGTH OF SPECTRAL COLOR. TWO HUES ARE YELLOW AND GREEN. VALUE REFERS TO RELATIVE LIGHTNESS OR DARKNESS FROM WITH, THROUGH GRAYS, TO BLACK. BLACK ADDED TO A HUE PRODUCES A SHADE OF THAT HUE. INTENSITY OR SATURATION REFERS TO THE PURITY OF A HUE OR COLOR. A PURE HUE IS THE MOST INTENSE FORM OF A GIVEN COLOR. ITS IS HUE AT ITS HIGHTEST SATURATION, IN ITS BRIGHTEST FORM. PRIMARY HUES RED, YELLOW AND BLUE. THESE HUES CANNOT BE PRODUCED BY AN INTERMIXING OF OTHER HUES, AKA PRIMARY COLORS. SECONDARY HUES ORANGE, GREEN, AND VIOLET. THE MIXTURE OF TWO PRIMARIES PRODUCES A SECONDARY HUE. MONOCHROMATIC A PURE HUE USED ALONE OR WITH BLACK OR WHITE, OR MIXED WITH BLACK OR WHITE. POINTILLISM METHOD OF PLACING DOTS OF DIFFERENT COLORS CLOSE TOGETHER TO CREATE THE PURITY AND BRILLIANCE OF NATURAL LIGHT IN PAINTINGS. ANALOGOUS BASED ON COLORS ADJACENT TO ONE ANOTHER ON THE COLOR WHEEL, EACH CONTAINING THE SAME PURE HUE. COMPLIMENTARY COLOR EMPASIZE TWO HUES DIRECTLY OPPOSITE EACH OTHER ON THE COLOR WHEEL, LIKE GREEN AND RED. A STRONG CONTRAST THAT INTENSIFIES BOTH COLORS TEXTURE REFERS TO THE TACTILE QUALITY OF SURFACES, OR A VISUAL REPRESENTATION OF THEM. WHAT ARE THE 7 SETS OF TERMS USED TO IDENTIFY THE MAJOR PRINCIPALS OF DESIGN? UNITY AND VARIETY BALANCE EMPHASIS AND SUBORDINATION DIRECTIONAL FORCES CONTRAST REPETITION AND RHYTHM SCALE AND PROPORTION UNITY THE APPEARNACE OR CONDITION OF ONENESS. THE FEELING THAT THINGS BELONG TOGETHER. VARIETY ACTS AS A COUNTER BALANCE TO EXTREME UNITY. BALANCE THERE ARE TWO TYPES, SYMMETRICAL (FORMAL), AND ASYMMETRICAL (INFORMAL). SYMMETRICAL BALANCE NEAR OR EXACT MATCHING OF LEFT AND RIGHT SIDES OR A 3-DIMENSIONAL FORM, OR A 2-DIMENSIONAL COMPOSITION. SYMMETRY EXACTLY THE SAME ON THE LEFT AND RIGHT SIDES. MAKES BIG BUILDINGS SEEM MOTIONLESS AND STABLE, BUT IS BORING WHEN USED IN TWO-DIMENSIONAL ART. ASYMMETRICAL BALANCE WHEN THE LEFT AND RIGHT SIDES ARE NOT THE SAME, BUT ARE BALANCED BY THE USE OF OTHER VISUAL REFERENTIAL WEIGHTED OBJECTS AROUND THE IMPLIED CENTER OF GRAVITY. VISUAL PROPERTIES (WEIGHTS) OF FORMS. TWO SMALL FORMS BALANCE ONE LARGE FORM. FORMS ARE HEAVIER NEAR THE EDGE, AND CAN BALANCE A LARGER FORM NEAR THE CENTER. COLOR CAN OVERTURN THESE PRINCIPLES. VISUAL PROPERTIES (WEIGHTS) OF COLORS. WARM COLORS ARE HEAVIER THAN COOL COLORS. INTENSE COLORS ARE HEAVIER THAN PALE ONES. THE WEIGHT OF ANY COLOR INCREASES AS THE BACKGROUND COLOR APPROACHES ITS COMPLIMENTARY HUE. EMPHASIS USED TO DRAW OUR ATTENTION TO AN AREA OR AREAS. POSITION, CONTRAST, COLOR INTENSITY, AND SIZE ARE USED TO CREATE EMPHASIS SUBORDINATION AN ARTIST CREATES NEUTRAL AREAS OF LESSER INTEREST THAT KEEP US INTERESTED IN THE AREAS OF EMPHASIS. CONTRAST THE JUXTAPOSITION OF STRONLY DISSIMILAR ELEMENTS. DARK AGAINST LIGHT, LARGE AGAINST SMALL, BRIGHT AGAINST DULL HOW DO LINES PRODUCE DIFFERENT SENSATIONS? A LINE THAT IS (|) IS STANDING STILL. A LINE THAT IS (__) IS AT REST. A LINE THAT IS (/) IS IN MOTION A COMBINATION OF VERTICLE AND HORIZONTAL LINES PORVIDE STABILITY. RHYTHM THE REGULAR RECURRANCE OF ELEMENTS WITH RELATED VARIATIONS. SCALE THE SIZE RELATION OF ONE THING TO ANOTHER. PROPORTION THE SIZE RELATIONSHIP OF PARTS TO A WHOLE. FORMAT THE SIZE AND SHAPE (THUS SCALE AND PROPORTION) OF A TWO-DIMENSIONAL PICTURE PLANE, LIKE A PIECE OF PAPER, A CANVAS, OR BOOK PAGE. WHAT IS THE AIM OF COMPOSITION? EXPRESSION HOW CAN SYMBOLIC MEANING BE EXPRESSED WITHIN A WORK OF ART? THROUGH SIZE RELATIONSHIPS WITHIN THE WORK. HIERARCHAL SCALE THE USE OF UNNATURAL PROPORTIONS TO SHOW THE RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF FIGURES. HENRI MATISSE 1869-1954 PAINTING WAS A COMBO. OF LINES SHAPES, AND COLORS BEFORE IT WAS A DIPICTION OF NAMEABLE OBJECTS. THE HUMAN FIGURE WAS HIM MAIN SUBJECT AND HIS INNOVATIVE APPROACH BROUGHT ABOUT A STYLE CALLED FAUVISM, ANOTHER ADDITION TO THE MODERN ART MOVEMENT. WHAT WERE SOME EARLY CRITICISMS OF IMPRESSIONISM? THE COLORS USED WEREN'T DARK, FEMALE SUBJECTS WEREN'T RELIGIOUS, THE PAINTING LOOKED UNFINISHED, AND THE SUBJECT MATTER WAS NO LONGER THE ELITE, IT DEPICTED EVERYDAY PEOPLE. COMPOSTITION THE ORGANIZATION OF TWO-DIMENIONAL ART, LIKE PAINTING AND PHOTOGRAPHY. DESIGN THE ORGANIZATION OF ANY VISUAL FORM OF ARTWORK. IT IS THE RESULT OF OUR BASIC NEED FOR MEANINGFUL ORDER. STYLE REFERS TO A CONSISTENT AND CHARACTERISTIC HANDLING OF MEDIA, ELEMENTS OF FORM, AND PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN THAT ARE IDENTIFIABLE AS THE PRODUCT OF A CERTAIN CULTURE, PERIOD, REGION, GROUP, OR PERSON. CULTURAL STYLE AN EXPRESSION OF BELIEFS, MATERIAL FORMS, AND/OR VALUE OF A SOCIETY USING SOME TYPE OF ART FORM. PERIOD STYLE STYLES THAT IS AN EXPRESSION OF A PARTICULAR TIME. IT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE OVER TIME DUE TO ECONOMY, POLITICS, TECHNOLOGY, OR RELIGIOUS INSIGHTS, ETC. ART NOUVEAU (FRENCH FOR NEW ART) A PERIOD STYLE THAT WAS PRODUCED BY ARTISHTS WHO WERE ANTIHISTORICAL--WHO TRIED TO FREE THEMSELVES FROM SUPERFICIAL REALISM. IT WAS PRODUCED IN ALL ART FORMS, INCLUDING FURNITURE MAKING. IT USES SINUOS LINES AND CONTOURS. REGIONAL STYLE DIFFERENCES IN ART THAT HAPPEN BECAUSE OF DISTANCE AND SPACE. IT IS MUCH LIKE THE VARIANCE IN LANGUAGE IN SPEECH PATTERNS THAT ARE SEEN BETWEEN GROUPS OF PEOPLE FROM DIFFERENT REGIONS. IT CAN BE A CONSCIOUS DECISION, OR NOT. GROUP STYLE ARTISTS ENTER INTO AN ALLIANCE TO EXHIBIT AND PUBLICIZE THEIR AIMS AS THEY DEVELOP AND PROMOTE A DISTINTIVE STYLE. IMPRESSIONISM IS AN EXAMPLE OF THIS AND MONET AND RENOIR WERE PART OF AN IMPRESSIONIST GROUP. WHAT DID IMPRESSIONIST ARTISTS DO THAT OTHER ARTISTS DID NOT? THEY DEPICTED LEISURE ACTIVITIES, URBAN SCENES, AND RURAL LANDSCAPES. THEY PAINTED OUTDOORS--DIRECTLY FROM THEIR SUBJECTS. THEY USED A STYLE THAT MADE THE PAINTING SEEM UNFINISHED. PERSONAL STYLE INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTIC MODES OF PERSONAL EXPRESSION. STYLES THAT EVOLVE NATURALLY THROUGH GROWTH AND CHANGE. KATHE KOLLWITZ 1867-1945 HER ART WAS USED AS SOCIAL CONSCIENCE AND TOOLS FOR SOCIAL CHANGE. HER ART WAS DONE IN BLACK AND WHITE, AND MADE INEXPENSIVELY SO THAT IT WAS AVAILABLE FOR ALL PEOPLE, NOT JUST THE WEALTHY. SHE WORKED IN DRAWING, PRINTS, AND SCULPTURE. LOUISE NEVELSON 1900-1908 A SCULPTOR WHO USED "FOUND" OBJECTS AND BELIEVED THAT IN ART, AS WELL AS IN LIFE, ITS NOT WHAT YOU START OUT WITH, ITS WHAT YOU MAKE OF IT. SHE WAS ONE OF THE 1ST PUBLIC ARTISTS AND WORKED IN NON-REPRESENTATIONAL ART THAT WAS IN THE REALM OF ABSTRACTION.