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27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Why do we perform an Allen's Test?
Test for the integrity of the radial and ulnar arteries at the wrist.
What is an Arterial Blood Gas?
- Determines the quality of gas exchange
- Acid-base balance
PaO2 normal value
80 - 100 mmHg
SaO2 normal value
pH normal value
7.35 - 7.45
PaCO2 normal value
35 - 45 mmHg
HCO3 Normal Value
22-26 meq/L
Respiratory Acidosis
Inc PaCO2, Dec pH
Cause of respiratory acidosis
retention of CO2 by the lungs due to inadequate gas exchange or increased production.
Respiratory Alkalosis
Dec PaCO2 with Inc pH
Causes of Respiratory alkalosis
Increased excretion of CO2 from teh serum, Hyperventillation, Fever, sepsis
Metabolic acidosis
Dec HCO3, Dec pH
Cause fo metabolic acidosis
increased production of acids such as ketoacid or lactic acid or decreased concentration of HCO3
Metabolic alkalosis
Inc HCO3, Increase pH
Causes fo rmetabolic alkalosis
increased production of bicarbonate or increased loss of non volatile acids
Types of acid-base compensation
Respiratory - lungs compensate quickly
Metabolic - Kidneys compensate slowly
Respiratory Compensation
Met acidosis - incrase rate and depth - lungs blow off CO2 to raise pH
Met alkalosis - decrease rate and depth - lungs retain CO2 to lower pH
Metabolic Compensation
Resp Acidosis - HCO3 reabsorption and increased hydrogen secretion to increase pH - Kidneys retain
Resp Alkalosis - Decreased hydrogen secretion and HCO3 reabsorption - Kidneys excrete
Full Compensation
Body is able to correct pH
Partial Compensation
Compensation has begun, and is moving pH to homeostasis
neither the respiratory sustem nor the renal system is adjusting to the alteration in acid base and therefor no compensation is occuring
pH 7.28, PaCO2 57, HCO3 24
Respiratory acidosis, uncompensated
pH 7.32, PaCO2 40, HCO3 16
Metabolic Acidosis, uncompensated
Ph 7.20, PaCO2 65, HCO3 30
Respiratory acidosis, partially compensated
Ph 7.47, PaCO2 49, HCO3 30
Metabolic Alkalosis, partially compensated
pH 7.46, PaCO2 35, HCO3 28
Metabolic alkalosis, uncompensated
NI for COPD client
Purse lip breathing exercises, relatixation techniques, diaphragmatic breathing, monitor ABG, oxygen support per physician, corticosteroid, mucolytic, suctioning if necessary, alleviate underlying cause if possible, high fowlers position
Ambulate or site in chair
Incentive spirometer
Tripod positioning
Oxygen via NC or mask
Bronchodialators to open airway
Observe for MI due to hyperkalemia