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104 Cards in this Set

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represented texture:
when the artist depicts the object as having a certain texture but it doesnt
lintel:
a beam used to span an opening
relief:
in scupture: figures projecting from the back ground

-degree of releif is designated high, low (bas) or sunkin
Paleolithic:
old stone age during which human kind produced the first paintings and sculptures
Neolithic
new stone age
composite perspective:
part of a figure in shown in profile and the other part is shown frontally
megalith:
"great stone"

-large rough stone used in the construction of monumental prehistoric srtuctures
pictograph:
-a picture that represents an idea

-writing using such means

-also painting on a rock
cuneiform:
-"wdege shaped"

-system of writing used in ancient Mesopotamia in which wedge shaped characters were produced by pressig a stylus into a soft clay tablet
ziggurat:
monumental platform for a temle (usually made out of mud) in ancient Mesopotamia
cella:
the chamber at the center of an ancient temple

-in a classical temple it is the room in which the cult statue usually stood
votive:
a gift or offering of gratitude to a diety
stele:
carved stone slab used to mark graves or to commemmorate historical events
lamassu:
Assysian guardian in the form of a man-headed wing bull
apadana:
the great audience hall in ancient Persian palaces
mummification:
technique used by ancient Egyptians to preserve human bodies so that they may serve as the home of the immortal ka
canopic jar:
in ancient Egypt: the jars where the organs of the deceased were placed for later burial with the mummy
hierogliphics:
a system of writing using symbols or pictures
sphinx:
a mythical Egyptian beast with the body of a lion and the head of a human
mastaba:
-arabic, "bench"

-ancient egyptian rectangular brick structure with sloping sides errected over subn terranean tomb chamber connected with the outside by a shaft
clerestory:
the fenesrtated part of a building that risese above the roofs of other parts

-in Roman buildings, the window that forms the naves uppermost level before the ceiling
hypostyle hall:
a hall with a roof supported by columns
ka:
in ancient egypt the immortal life form
mat:
judge of good and right
fresco secco:
dry

-painted on lime plaster
-fresco:
wet

-pigments are mixed with water and bvecome chemically bound to the freshly laid lime plaster
atlantid:
a male figure that functionas as a supporting column
caryatid:
a female fifure that functionas as a supporting column
papyrus:
a plant native to Egypt and used to make paperlike writing materials

-the material and any writing on it
ben-ben:
-a pyrimidal stone

-fetish of the god Re
serdab:
a small concealed chamber in an Egyptian mastabas for a statue of the deceased
capital:
the upper most chamber of a column serving as a transistion from the shaft to the lintel

in classical archutecture the form of the capital varies with order
chamfer:
the surface formed by cutting off a corner of a board or post; a bevel
fluting:
vertical channeling, roughly semi circular in cross section and used principally on columns and plasters
nemes:
in ancient Egypt

-the linen headress worn by the phoroah with the cobra in front
subtractive sculpture:
technique in which materials are taken away from the original mass;ie carving
relieving triangle:
in Mycenean architecture

-the tryangular opening above the lintel that serves to lighten the weight to be carried by the lintel itself
tholos:
temple with a circular plan
corbeled arch:
projecting wall member used as a support for some element in the superstructure

*also, cocourses of stone or brick in which each course projects beyond the one beneath it meeting at the topmost course
repousse:
formed in reliefby beating a metal plate from the back leaving the imression on the face

-the metal is hammered into a hollow mold of wood or some other pliable material and finished with a graver

-
megaron:
the large reception hall in a Mycenaen palace

-fronted by an open two column porch
cyclopean masonry:
method of stone construction named after Cyclops

-uses massive irregualr blocks without mortar

Myceanaen sites
chryselephantine:
fashioned of gold and ivory
fertility figures:
-neolithic figures of women with large breasts and bellys

-carved from limestone

-vagina is carved
sarsen:
-form of sandstone that makes up Stonehinge on the Salisbury Plain in S. England

-outermost ring
bluestons:
smaller various volanic rocks on the Salisbury Plain
trithilons:
three stone structure found on Salisbury
jericho skulls:
preservation of human skulls, with facial features reconstructed from plaster and eyes set with shells

-7000-7500?
conceptual:
representation

-artist indicating things t (flat unnatural eye) to communicate form
optical:
recording immediate aspects of figures
Mesopotamia:
"land between (th Tigris and Euphrates) Rivers

-here humans first learned how to use the wheel, plow food, control floods and construct irrigation canals

-gave birth to Judiasm, Christianity and Islam
Sumerian:
-people who transformed mesopotamia (sumer)

-first city- states (everything revolved around that community)

-city planning and religion

-uraks white temple
Akkadian:
-took over sumer

-spoke different language (hebrew and arabic)

-loyalty to king rather than city state
Neo Sumerian:
-Gutians killed Akkads, Sumerians killed Gutians

-established Neo Sumerian ruled by King Ur (Third Dynasty of Ur)
Babylonians:
-King Hammurabi, Babylons most powerful King, re-established centralized govt which perscribed penalties
Assyrians:
-had fortress palaces

-statues, mural paintings and narrative reliefs

unfinished royal city of Sargon
Neo Babylonians:
-over former Assyrian Empire

-Ishtar Gate (mud vrick city with blue glazed bricks
Persain:
most important knowledge comes from citedal of Perseplois

-Gate of all lands referred to harmoy between persians
Sasanian:
-new persian empire

-central feature of Shapurs palace was the iwan, brick audience hall

-scuplters used repousse
Leonard Wooley:
-discovered the Royal Cemetary of Ur in 1920

-gold objects, jewlery, artwork, musical instruments,
Epic of Gilgamesh:
Sumerian litterature

-antedates Illiad and Odessey by 1,500 years

-Gilgamesh was a king of Urak and slayer of monster Huwana
Uraks white temple:
-home of gilgamesh

-Sumerian
bent axis:
-standard arrangment for Sumerian temples

-stairway leads to top but does not end in front of any doorways necessitating two or three angular changes in direction
Anu:
chief diety of the Sumerians

--god of the sky and city of Urak

-white temple of Urak probably dedicated to his worship
Inanna:
-sumerian goddess of love and war (later known as Ishtar)

--most important female diety in all of Mesopatamian history

-Sumerians constructed a temple devoted to her worship in Urak
lyre:
stringed instrument of the harp class having an U-shaped frame

-bull headed lyre was restored from cemetary at ur
Predynastic:
prehistoric egyptian civiliztion

-egypt was divided into upper and lower
rosaetta stone:
-discovered by napolean bonopart

--gave scholars key to decoding heiroglyphics

-one in greek, one in demotic (late egyptian), one in heiroglyphic
Jean Francis Chamollion:
-decuced that the heiroglyphics on rosetta stone weren't just pictographs but a language

-kinda started egyptology
Khufu:
-in gizeh

-oldest and largest of the trhee pyrimids

-limestone
pyrimids:
-fourth dynasty pyrimids

-symbols of the sun

-where Egyptian kingsreborn into the afterlife
khafre:
-an entire funerary complex has been reconstructed

-phoroah was buried here

-great sphinx to the side
Menakaure:
smallest
citadel:
a fortress that commands a city
diorite:
a granular crystalline igneous rock
Manetho:
Egyptian historian and priest

coined the term "dynasty"

probably a priest of the sun god Ra at Heliopolis
Hathor
ancient egyptian goddess, worshipped as a cow-deity

milky way

seen as the daughter of Ra
osiris:
egyptian god of order and was looked t as the knig that vrough civilization to Egypt
imhotep:
one of the first renowned figures in Egypt history

-pharoahs chancellor and high preist of the sun god

-after he died egyptians revered him as a god

-first known recored artist
hatshepsut:
egyptian female pharoah

-first great female monarh whose name was recorded
rock cut tombs:
-temple of ramses (hatshetsups mortuary temple)
amen:
supreme god

god of sun?

-amenhotop denounced him
ramses II
-egypts last great warrior pharoah

-rock cut tomb outside of Hatshesups mortuary

-
tutankhamen:
-probaby akhetons (bad Guy) son

-perserved body found



lapiz lazul (semi precious stones in tuts innermost coffin)

shown as a conquerer
hatshepsut:
egyptian female pharoah

-first great female monarh whose name was recorded
rock cut tombs:
-temple of ramses (hatshetsups mortuary temple)
amen:
supreme god

god of sun?

-amenhotop denounced him
ramses II
-egypts last great warrior pharoah

-rock cut tomb outside of Hatshesups mortuary

-
tutankhamen:
-probaby akhetons (bad Guy) son

-perserved body found



lapiz lazul (semi precious stones in tuts innermost coffin)

shown as a conquerer
osiris:
-egyptian god of dead

-king of underworld

-giver of eternal life
akheton:
-pharoah that abandoned worship of most egyptian gods in favor of Aton

-sun disk emitting life giving rays

-looked like a chick
nefertiti:
-akhetons's queen ('the beautiful one is here)

-
book of the dead:
-collection of spells and prayers

-essential equipment of tombs and well to do persons
minoan art:
marked by the construction of large palaces on crete

--new palace is golden age on crete

-
helladic art:
agean art of the greek mainland
minotoar:
man headed bull

-king minos of knosso on fed a group of cretans to it
mycenean:
--took place the time the old palaces were being built on Crete

-made of gold

-citedals giants built, king hall, lion gate
cycladic:
lots of marble sculptures
HOward Carter:
excavation of King Tut
Aurther Evans:
-named the Minoans after there mythological king

-worked at Knossos and uncovered a palace with a maze (labyrinth)
Heinrich Schlieman:
archeologist that uncovered some of the cities Homer named

-found a fortess palace, tombs, jewelry and cups and weapons in mycenae
Horus:
osirus and isiss son

-avenged his fathers death and and displaced seth as egypts king
linear a/b
written agean scripts

-b can now be read
cylinder seals:
sumerian impression or stamp