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26 Cards in this Set

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Describe the Baroque art period.
-Characteristics: light, drama, shadows, emotion
-Influenced by scientific revolution, counter-reformation and absolutism
Describe the Rococo period.
-Baroque on steriods
-Frilly
-Universal Law= during enlightenment
Describe the Neoclassical period.
-Enlightenment thinkers wanted to apply universal law to society
-"Age of Democratic Revolutions"
-Influences= against rococo, Pompey and Herculium excavated (inspiration), industrial revolution, political revolution (american, french) thinking about change
Describe the Romantic period.
-Reaction against enlightenment
-Tired of French influence
-Emotion, passion, dreams
What was the industrial revolution?
-Began in England
-New classes= middle and working
-No protection for workers
-Frederick Ingles= condition of working class, called for them to rise up
-1848 revolutions= Vienna and Paris (workers rise up)
Describe the Realist movement.
-Unembellished, not based on modern life
-Group of artists paint reality
How did France unify and what lead to it?
-Louis Bonaparte II= stages coup declares himself emperor
-Franco-Prussian war= devastates France
-Unification= Paris under siege of Prussians, but rest of France organizes new gov. under Thierres
-Paris colaspes= War of Commuin March (civil war)
What were the trends of the 3rd republic?
-New constitution
1. Anti-Cliericalism (anti-catholic)
2. Economy went down
3. Revenge against Germans
4. Anti-Semitism
5. Growing worker dissatisfaction
What was the Dreyfoos Case?
-Dreyfoos (Jew) accused of treason for revealing military tactics, found guilty
-Colonel Picquart= looks at records and thinks he's innocent, thinks handwriting is Esterhazy's
-Emile Zola= French author writes a letter of everyone he thinks did injustice
-On third trial found innocent, and he then fights in WW1
-Army willing to sacrifice man for reputation
How did Germany unify?
-Zolluerein= custom's union, so states didn't have to pay taxes
-Wars: Denmark= Bismarck hired (real politik, Machiavellian), Austria= Prussia wins, Peace of Prague sets up North German Confederation, Franco-Prussian=Prussia wins Germany unites
How did Italy unify?
-Nationalism
-All states wanted to unify but Papal States
-Mussolini comes to power, signs Vatican treaty to grant separate rights to them
Describe the Impressionist movement.
-Critiqued for being pejorative, "just impressions not paintings"
-Characteristics: painted outside, obsession with light, rejected traditional themes (religion, history, mythology)
-Centered around reconstructed Paris= low height of buildings with more light, white stone reflected light, bridges, suburbs (travel by train)
What were the long term causes of WW1?
1. Nationalism= unifications, divide in Austria-Hungary (Slavs)
2. Imperialism= competition (new markets), Africa: Congress of Berlin to divide
3. Militarism= 4.5 million armed, Schlieffen Plan, major powers started training armies
4. Alliances= Triple Alliance/Entente, domino war effect (more courageous about starting war)
5. International anarchy= no International gov/organization
What was the short term cause of WW1?
-Assassination of Franz Ferdinand, heir to throne of Austria, progressive
-Black Hand= terrorist group who killed him, Slavic nationalist
-AH convinced Serbia was responsible, and sent ultimatum they knew they wouldn't agree to
-AH gets "blank check" from Germany, Russia mobilizes to protect slavs in Serbia
Why did the Schileffen Plan fail?
1. Belgium resistance
2. Russia mobilized faster
3. Germans did not expect French to hold them back
4. Germans helped British would join their side
5. Didn't send all troops to France, left some near Russia
What new weapons were introduced in WW1?
-Trench warfare= stalemate, tons of death, boredom
-Machine gun= tons of deaths
-Mustard gas= melts lungs
-Airplanes= "total war"
-Submarines= U-boats (Germany), Lusitania
What were the two great events of 1917 that changed the course of the war?
1. U.S. entry b/c zimmerman telegram, submarines, democracy, and financial
2. Russian withdrawal= b/c revolution, Treaty of Breslitask
What was Wilson's Fourteen Points?
-A speech given by Woodrow Wilson
-"Peace w/o victory", spread democracy, create league (but US wouldn't ratify)
What was the Treaty of Versailles?
-Ended WW1
-Harsh on Germans= "war guilt clause", reparations, territories
What is Fascism?
-Totalitarianism= gov regulates everything, dictatorship
-Statism= glorification of state, use war, nationalism but not patriotic, 1 party
-Propoganda and secret police
How was fascism present in Italy?
-Post-war discontent: hoped to gain land, high unemployment, political instability
-Mussolini= Union Combat, socialist then war, Italian Fascist Party (march on Rome, pledged alligiance to Mussolini)
Who was Andre Breton?
-Surrealist and dadaist
-Associated with WW1, Zerek, Switzerland as center (and Paris and NYC)
-Wrote Manifests of Surrealism b/c dissatisfied with Dada (nonsense)
-Defined surrealism: try to achieve a greater reality (genius if could connect w/ unconscious state)
What was Dadaism?
-Refused to identify themselves on a set of beliefs
-Rejected social organizations and traditional defs of European beauty
-Anti-War
-No unifying aesthetic
-Nihilist= nothing is sacred
-Irrationality
What does "Dada" mean and how did the movement get it's name?
-Opened a dictionary and pointed to random word
-A series of meanings
What was the difference between European and NY Dadaist?
-European= cryptic, unconscious place
-NY= more playful
What were Andre Breton's core principles of surrealism?
1. Freud's theories= irr/rational tension
2. Free yourself up to look at desires/what makes you happy
3. Method to free yourself= dream analysis, free association, hypnosis