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59 Cards in this Set

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Paleolithic
The “old” Stone Age, during which humankind produced the first sculptures and paintings
Burin
A pointed tool used for engraving or incising
Incise
To cut into a surface with a sharp instrument; also, a method of decoration, especially on metal and pottery
Provenance
Origin or source; findspot
Relief
In sculpture, figures projecting from a background of which they are part. The degree of relief is designated high, low, or sunken. In the last, the artist cuts the design into the surface so that the highest projecting parts of the image are no higher than the surface itself
Composition
The way in which an artist organizes forms in an artwork, either by placing shapes on a flat surface or arranging forms in space
Composite View
A convention of representation in which part of a figure is shown in profile and another part of the same figure is shown frontally; also called twisted perspective
Terracotta
Hard-baked clay, used for sculpture and as a building material. It may be glazed or painted
Tumulus
“burial mound”; Also characteristic of the Japanese Kofun period of the 3rd and 4th centuries
Pictograph
A picture, usually stylized, that represents an idea; also, writing using such means; also, painting on rock
Cunieform
“wedge-shaped”; A system of writing used in ancient Mesopotamia, in which wedge-shaped characters were produced by pressing a stylus into a soft clay tablet, which was then baked or otherwise allowed to harden
Cella
The chamber at the center of an ancient temple; in a classical temple, the room in which the cult statue usually stood
Votive Offering
A gift of gratitude to a deity
Hierarchy of Scale
An artistic convention in which greater size indicates greater importance
Heraldic Composition
A composition that is symmetrical on either side of a central figure
Lamassu
Assyrian guardian in the form of a man-headed winged bull
Blind Arcade
An arcade have no true openings, applied as decoration to a wall surface
Papyrus
A plant native to Egypt and adjacent lands used to make paper-like writing material; also, the material or any writing on it
Demotic
Late Egyptian writing
Mastaba
"bench"; An ancient Egyptian rectangular brick or stone structure with sloping sides erected over a subterranean tomb chamber connected with the outside by a shaft
Canopic Jars
In ancient Egypt, the container in which the organs of the deceased were placed for later burial with the mummy
Necropolis
“city of the dead”; A large burial area or cemetery
Canon
A rule, for example, of proportion. The ancient Greeks considered beauty to be a matter of “correct” proportion and sought a canon of proportion, for the human figure and for buildings. The 5th century BCE sculptor Polykleitos wrote the Canon, a treatise incorporating his formula for the perfectly proportional statue
Fluted
Vertical channeling, roughly semicircular in cross-section and used principally on columns and pilasters
Facade
Usually, the front of a building; also, the other sides when they are emphasized architecturally
Atlantid
A male figure that functions as a supporting column
Caryatid
A female figure that functions as a supporting column
Hypostyle Hall
A hall with a roof supported by columns
Clerestory
The fenestrated (having windows) part of a building that rises above the roofs of other parts. The oldest known clerestories are Egyptian. In Roman basilicas and medieval churches, clerestories are the windows that form the nave's uppermost level below the timber ceiling or the vault
Faience
A low-fired opaque glasslike silicate
Chryselephantine
Fashioned of gold and ivory
Cyclopean Masonry
A method of stone construction, named after the mythical Cyclops, using massive, irregular blocks without mortar, characteristic of the Bronze Age fortifications of Tiryns and other Mycenaean sites
Repousse
Formed in relief by beating a metal plate from the back, leaving the impression on the face. The metal sheet is hammered into a hollow mold of wood or some other pliable material and finished with a graver
Hellas
The ancient name of Greece
Slip
A mixture of fine clay and water used in ceramic decoration
Amphora
An ancient Greek two-handled jar used for general storage purposes, usually to hold wine or oil
Kore
Greek, “young woman.” An Archaic Greek statue of a young woman
Kouros
Greek, “young man.” An Archaic Greek statue of a young man
Encaustic
A painting technique in which pigment is mixed with melted wax and applied to the surface while the mixture is hot.
Peristyle
In classical architecture, a colonnade all around the cella and its porch(es). A peripteral colonnade consists of a single row of columns on all sides; a dipteral colonnade has a double row all around
Doric
One of the two systems invented in ancient Greece for articulating three units of the elevation of a classical building: the platform, the colonnade, and the superstructure(entablature). The Doric order is characterized by, among other features, capitals with funnel-shaped echinuses, columns without bases, and a frieze of triglyphs and metopes
Ionic
One of the two systems invented in ancient Greece for articulating three units of the elevation of a classical building: the platform, the colonnade, and the superstructure(entablature). The Ionic order is characterized by, among other features, volutes, capitals, columns with bases, and an uninterrupted frieze
Corinthian Capital
A more ornate form than Doric and Ionic; it consists of a double row of acanthus leaves from which tendrils and flowers grow, wrapped around a bell-shaped echinus. Although this capital form is often cited as the distinguishing feature of the Corinthian order, no such order exists, in strict terms, but only this style of capital used in the Ionic order
Architrave
The lintel or lowest division of the entablature; also called the epistyle
Frieze
The part of the entablature between the architrave and the cornice; also, any sculptured or painted band in a building
Cornice
The projecting, crowning member of the entablature framing the pediment; also, any crowning projection
Triglyphs
A triple projecting, grooved member of a Doric frieze that alternates with metopes
Metopes
The square panel between the triglyphs in a Doric frieze, often sculpted in relief
Entasis
The convex profile (an apparent swellin) in the shaft of a column
Foreshortening
The use of perspective to represent in art the apparent visual contraction of an object that extends back in space at an angle to the perpendicular plane of sight
Contrapposto
The disposition of the human figure in which ope part (usually hips and legs one way, shoulders and chest another), creating a counterpositioning of the body about its central axis. Sometimes called “weight shift” because the weight of the body tends to be thrown to one foot, creating tension on one side and relaxation on the other
Tesserae
Greek, “cube.” A tiny stone or piece of glass cut to the desired shape and size for use in forming a mosaic
Bodhisattvas
In Buddhist thought, a potential Buddha who chooses not to achieve enlightenment in order to help save humanity
Reliquary
A container for holding relics (the body parts, clothing, or objects associated with a holy figure)
Lacquer
A varnishlike substance made from the sap of the Asiatic sumac tree, used to decorate wood and other organic materials. Often colored with mineral pigments, lacquer cures to great hardness and has a lustrous surface
Bi
In ancient China, jade disks carved as ritual objects for burial with the dead. They were often decorated with piercings that extended entirely through the object, as well as with surface carvings
Bay
The space between two columns, or one unit in the nave arcade of a church; also, the passageway in an arcuated gate
Sutra
In Buddhism, an account of a sermon by or a dialoge involving the Buddha. A scriptual account of the Buddha
Sgraffito
A Chinese ceramic technique in which the design is incised through a colored slip