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48 Cards in this Set

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Sarcophagus
“consumer of flesh”, a coffin, usually of stone
-coffin w/ additional sculpture
-Etruscan
-Romans added frieze & portrait face
Terra Cotta
ETRUSCAN; hard-baked clay, used for sculpture and as a building material; it may be glazed or painted; mastered by Etruscan - creating and firing large pieces
Neocropolis
ETRUSCAN “city of the dead”, mass grave with an organized, almost urban layout, individual tombs in regular placements
-emulate houses of the living
Orator's pose
raised arm indicating speech as if addressing a crowd, symbolic of power and intellect, political vision (Aule Metele)
Portico
a roofed colonnade; also an entrance porch
Cella
the chamber at the center of an ancient temple; in a classical temple, the room in which the cult statue usually stood
Atrium
the court of a Roman house that is partly open to the sky; also the open, colonnaded court in front of and attached to a Christian basilica
-in between space preparing for entering the house, had central pool w/ rect opening in ceiling (light and rainwater), frescoes, wall decorations, things referring to social identity of home owner
Fresco
painting on lime plaster, either dry or wet; popular in Italy throughout (Classical Rome to Gothic in cathedrals)
Personification
ROMAN an abstract idea represented in bodily form
-constructing memory
-association of person and power; portraiture
Aqueduct
na
Triumphal arcade
part architecture part sculpture; covered in sculpture, reliefs, text; erected after; often times it would be built just before return so the returning victors could march through the arch
-made of concrete, covered w/ marble; read like a movie reel; carrying treasures of Judaism
-emphasis on ritual: connect action of marching under the arch w/ the artwork
Forum
the public square of an ancient Roman city
Rotunda
the circular area under a dome; also a domed round building
Coffer
a sunken panel, often ornamental, in a vault or a ceiling
used in Pantheon; creates illusion of depth (greater volume)
Equestrian Statue
- statue of philosopher emperor; one of “good” emperors of Rome
Marcus Aurelius was 1st - Justinian used later - became standard type of statuary
Encaustic
ROMAN a painting technique in which pigment is mixed with wax and applied to the surface while hot
-use wax as binder
Basilica
Roman: large building for civic and government purposes
-rectangular nave with an entrance usually on a long side; 2 semicircular apse where ruler sat
Christian: church resembling the Roman basilica, usually entered from one end and with an apse at the other
Nave
the central area of an ancient Roman basilica or of a church, demarcated from aisles by piers or columns
Catacombs
a subterranean network of rock-cut galleries and chamber designed as cemeteries for the burial of the dead
-had to be secret and subversive because of opposition to Christianity
-decorated w/ frescoes
Apse
a recess, usually semicircular, in the wall of a Roman basilica or at the east end of a church
Celerestory
In ROMAN basilicas and MEDIEVAL churches, the windows that form the naves’ uppermost level below the timber ceiling or the vaults
part of Early Christian, Romanesque, & Gothic churches & cathedrals
Arcade
a series of arches supported by piers or columns
surrounds nave of Early Christian, Romanesque & Gothic churches and cathedrals
-Early Medieval and on (Romanesque, etc.) alter columns with PIERS
Ambulatory
a covered walkway, outdoors (as in a church cloister) or indoors; especially the passageway around the apse and the choir of a church
Mosaic
patterns or pictures made by embedding small pieces (tesserae) of stone or glass in cement on surfaces such as walls and floors
Mausoleum
a monumental tomb
Pendentive
a concave triangular section of a hemisphere, four of which provide the transition from a square area to the circular base of a covering dome; they support the dome
-transition from square (base) to circle (dome)
Apse mosaic
usually subject relating to communion
portrait
Roman
Pantokrator
Pantocrator
Christ as ruler and judge of heaven and earth
-ruling of the heavens, of everything; Christ as all powerful, judge of the earth
triptych
a three-paneled painting or alter piece
-3 pieces, 2 doors on hinges flanking central section
Mihrab
a semicircular niche set into the qibla wall of a mosque
-a niche in the qibla wall indicating the direction of Mecca
Mosque
the Islamic building for collective worship. From the Arabic word masjid, meaning a “place for bowing down”
Madrasa
an Islamic theological college adjoining and often containing a Mosque
Minaret
a distinctive feature of mosque architecture, a tower form which the faithful are called to worship
-the tower associated with a mosque from which the faithful are called to prayer
Ball court
becomes standard part of urban life for Mesoamerica
-recreational & symbolic
-for ceremony - loser executed
Geoglyph
ground drawings, from N. Chile to N. Peru
- figures/drawings etched into earth’s face by removing rocks and topsoil
- mysterious, unknown meaning
-famous: hummingbird, complex and large design
-a lot of spirals
Kiva
a large circular underground structure that is the spiritual and ceremonial center of Pueblo Indian life
-have cyclical pattern of thinking (circles); only space specifically for men; reflects pit house construction (in the ground)
Zimbabwe
-Zimbabwe = stone house/ enclosure; became way of demarcating space for elite
-great fortresses, big houses w/ in a larger community that house the ruling class
Carpet page
in early medieval manuscripts, decorative pages resembling textiles
Interlace
complex shapes and forms used to decorate churches, purse covers, books, textile
EARLY CHRISTIAN - seen mostly in North (Charlemagne)
Westwork
the façade and towers at the western end of a medieval church, principally in Germany
-innovation of Earl Medieval Christian era
Gallery
ROMANESQUE: provided additional support for heavy masonry vaulting & space for extra pilgrims
Tympanum
Romanesque: the space enclosed by a lintel and an arch over a doorway
buttress
GOTHIC provided extra lateral support for vaulted ceiling
lateral elements like compound piers, connected by horizontal flying element, open up space for glass by lightening the wall load
tapestry
a weaving technique in which the weft threads are packed densely over the warp threads so that the designs are woven directly into the fabric
ribbed vault
Gothic: a vault in which the diagonal and transverse ribs compose a structural skeleton that partially supports the masonry web between them
-allows for more flexible and elaborate spaces, linear effects, disperses thrust, decorative too
triforium
Gothic: cathedral - the blind arcaded gallery below the clerestory; occasionally the arcades are filled with stained glass
-purely decoration
-took over Gallery space from Romanesque
rose window
Gothic: a circular stained glass window; usually on westwork, can by in triforium